Toll-Free: (800) 262-2116   Ph: (510) 446-7980   Fax: 1-800-746-8024
  • I was first made aware of your products by the training guru Charles Poliquin…as a 51 yr. old Pro-natural bodybuilding competitor I need to stay competitve with the younger guys. Simply One Men works well for me. Read more

    R Y, Phx, Az  Simply One Men
  • I loved this with my first pregnancy and now I am pregnant again…! Read more

    Lisa Sutherland, Holistic Health Cousellor, London, UK  PreNatal Blend
  • I've only been taking Simply One Women for a week but I'm amazed at how good I feel! Read more

    Amanda Moreno - Registered Nurse, Sacramento, CA  Simply One Women

Scientific References

  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) reduced PMS significantly at 100-200 mg per day. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in SimplyOne Women (100mg) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (250mg)

    This retrospective study of 630 women showed that while 100 mg to 150 mg of supplemental vitamin B6 reduced PMS in 65-68% of the women, 160 mg to 200 mg of Vitamin B6 reduced PMS in 70-88% of the women.

    Brush MG, et al. Pyridoxine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a retrospective survey in 630 patients. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1988 Nov;42(11):448-52.

    Full Abstract:

    We present a survey summarising the retrospective reports of the therapeutic effect of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in 630 women suffering from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) who attended a PMS clinic during the period 1976-1983. The daily doses of pyridoxine hydrochloride varied from 40 to 100 mg early in the study and from 120 to 200 mg in the later period of the investigations. The response to treatment was recorded as good (no significant residual complaints) in 40 per cent or more of patients taking 100-150 mg pyridoxine daily and in 60 per cent of patients treated with 160-200 mg daily. Together with partial response (useful benefit but still some significant complaints), the positive effect of the treatment increased to 65-68 per cent and 70-88 per cent respectively. No symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were reported.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin D intake of 706 IU per day was associated with almost half the risk of developing PMS compared to intake of 112 IU per day. Vitamin D in SimplyOne Women (3000IU) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (2500IU)

    Looking at the vitamin D intake of Women in the Nurses’ Health Study II, this study concluded that women with a higher median vitamin D intake of 706 IU per day were 41 percent less likely to develop PMS compared to those who got a median of only 112 IU per day.

     Bertone-Johnson ER, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005 Jun 13;165(11):1246-52.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most common disorders of premenopausal women. Studies suggest that blood calcium and vitamin D levels are lower in women with PMS and that calcium supplementation may reduce symptom severity, but it is unknown whether these nutrients may prevent the initial development of PMS.

    METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Participants were a subset of women aged 27 to 44 years and free from PMS at baseline in 1991, including 1057 women who developed PMS over 10 years of follow-up and 1968 women reporting no diagnosis of PMS and no or minimal menstrual symptoms. Intake of calcium and vitamin D was measured in 1991, 1995, and 1999 by a food frequency questionnaire.

    RESULTS: After adjustment for age, parity, smoking status, and other risk factors, women in the highest quintile of total vitamin D intake (median, 706 IU/d) had a relative risk of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.86) compared with those in the lowest quintile (median, 112 IU/d) (P = .01 for trend). The intake of calcium from food sources was also inversely related to PMS; compared with women with a low intake (median, 529 mg/d), participants with the highest intake (median, 1283 mg/d) had a relative risk of 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.97) (P = .02 for trend). The intake of skim or low-fat milk was also associated with a lower risk (P<.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of PMS. Large-scale clinical trials addressing this issue are warranted. Given that calcium and vitamin D may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis and some cancers, clinicians may consider recommending these nutrients even for younger women.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Chasteberry (Vitex agnus castus) extract has been shown to reduce PMS.Chasteberry extract in SimplyOne Women (30mg) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (100mg)

    This randomized placebo-controlled 3-month study of premenstrual syndrome in 170 women (average age 36) showed that 20 mg of chasteberry extract reduced PMS about 28 percent better than placebo. The women noted significant reductions in irritability, mood disturbances, anger, headache, and breast fullness compared to the placebo group.

    Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. British Medical Journal 2001 Jan 20;322:134-137.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of agnus castus fruit (Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440) with placebo for women with the premenstrual syndrome.

    DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles.

    SETTING: General medicine community clinics. Participants: 178 women were screened and 170 were evaluated (active 86; placebo 84). Mean age was 36 years, mean cycle length was 28 days, mean duration of menses was 4.5 days.

    INTERVENTIONS: Agnus castus (dry extract tablets) one tablet daily or matching placebo, given for three consecutive cycles.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main efficacy variable: change from baseline to end point (end of third cycle) in women's self assessment of irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, breast fullness, and other menstrual symptoms including bloating. Secondary efficacy variables: changes in clinical global impression (severity of condition, global improvement, and risk or benefit) and responder rate (50% reduction in symptoms).

    RESULTS: Improvement in the main variable was greater in the active group compared with placebo group (P<0.001). Analysis of the secondary variables showed significant (P<0.001) superiority of active treatment in each of the three global impression items. Responder rates were 52% and 24% for active and placebo, respectively. Seven women reported mild adverse events (four active; three placebo), none of which caused discontinuation of treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dry extract of agnus castus fruit is an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Calcium carbonate at 1,000 mg per day reduced PMS and menstrual symptoms 58 percent better than placebo.Calcium carbonate in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (1000 mg–carbonate & citrate)

    This randomized placebo-controlled study that assessed premenstrual and menstrual symptoms in 33 women showed that while taking 1000 mg of calcium carbonate daily 73% of the women reported fewer symptoms, including significant reductions in pain, water retention, and negative emotions like anger and irritability.

    Thys-Jacobs S, et al. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1989;4(3):183-9.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of calcium supplementation in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

    DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover trial.

    SETTING: Outpatient medical clinic of a large city hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight women were initially screened. Trial selection was based on a history of recurrent PMS symptoms and on the results of a prospective assessment of daily symptom scores. Only women with symptom scores during the late luteal phase that were at least 50% greater than those during the intermenstrual phase were selected. Thirty-three women completed the trial.

    INTERVENTION: A preliminary evaluation included physical examination, routine laboratory tests, dietary assessment, and psychiatric evaluation. Each participant received six months of treatment involving three months of daily calcium supplementation (1,000 mg of calcium carbonate) and three months of placebo.

    MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy was assessed prospectively by changes in daily symptom scores over a six-month period and retrospectively by an overall global assessment. Multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance on symptom ratings derived from daily PMS symptom scores demonstrated a reduction in symptoms on calcium treatment during both the luteal (p = 0.011) and the menstrual phases (p = 0.032) of the reproductive cycle. Calcium supplementation had no effect during the intermenstrual phase. Retrospective assessment of overall symptoms confirmed this reduction: 73% of the women reported fewer symptoms during the treatment phase on calcium, 15% preferred placebo, and 12% had no clear preference. Three premenstrual factors (negative affect [p = 0.045]; water retention [p = 0.003]; pain [p = 0.036]) and one menstrual factor (pain [p = 0.02]) were significantly alleviated by calcium.

    CONCLUSION: Calcium supplementation is a simple and effective treatment for premenstrual syndrome, but further studies will be needed to determine its precise role in PMS.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Magnesium at 200 and 360 mg per day reduced PMS.Magnesium in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (600 mg)

    Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showed that magnesium at 360 mg per day reduced headaches and pain, and at 200 mg reduced fluid retention with resulting reductions in weight gain, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness and abdominal bloating.

    Facchinetti F, et al. Magnesium prophylaxsis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991 May;31(5):298-301. Walker AF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. Journal of Womens Health 1998 Nov;7(9):1157-65.

    Full Abstract:

    The effects of oral Magnesium (Mg) pyrrolidone carboxylic acid were evaluated in 20 patients affected by menstrual migraine, in a double-blind, placebo controlled study. After a two cycles run-in period, the treatment (360 mg/day of Mg or placebo) started on the 15th day of the cycle and continued till the next menses, for two months. Oral Mg was then supplemented in an open design for the next two months. At the 2nd month, the Pain Total Index was decreased by both Placebo and Mg, with patients receiving active drug showing the lowest values (P less than 0.03). The number of days with headache was reduced only in the patients on active drug. Mg treatment also improved premenstrual complaints, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) scores. The reduction of PTI and MDQ scores was observed also at the 4th month of treatment, when Mg was supplemented in all the patients. Intracellular Mg++ levels in patients with menstrual migraine were reduced compared to controls. During oral Mg treatment, the Mg++ content of Lymphocytes (LC) and Polymorphonucleated cells (PMN) significantly increased, while no changes in plasma or Red Blood Cells were found. An inverse correlation between PTI and Mg++ content in PMN was demonstrated. These data point to magnesium supplementation as a further means for menstrual migraine prophylaxis, and support the possiblity that a lower migraine threshold could be related to magnesium deficiency. PMID: 1860787.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin E was shown to reduce PMS in 15 categories of symptoms. Vitamin E in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (400 IU)

    This randomized, placebo-controlled study confirmed a previous study by the same author, showing that with 400 IU of natural form vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) "all major categories of PMS symptoms are improved with supplementation of 400 IU of vitamin E daily." In all 15 categories of symptoms, vitamin E-supplemented women reported 27-42% reduction in severity.

    London RS, et al. Efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1987 Jun;32(6):400-4.

    Full Abstract:

    In a preliminary study, alpha-tocopherol supplementation was effective in reducing specific symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). To confirm these findings, we performed a randomized, double-blind study using d,alpha-tocopherol and placebo in a carefully screened population of women with PMS. Standardized PMS questionnaires were administered in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle to all subjects, before and after daily treatment with 400 IU d,alpha-tocopherol or placebo for three cycles. Of the 46 subjects enrolled, 41 completed the clinical trial. A significant improvement in certain affective and physical symptoms was noted in subjects treated with d,alpha-tocopherol.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin D only at higher doses reduced the rate of bone fractures.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Women (3,000 IU), Women’s Blend (2,500 IU), Simply One Men (3,000 IU), SuperNutrition Menopause Multiple (1,000 IU), SuperNutrition Opti-Energy Pack (1,000 IU), SuperNutrition Calcium Blend (1,000 IU)

    A major review of scientific studies since 1960 to 2005 found that 700-800 IU of supplemental vitamin D daily reduced the risk of hip fracture by 26% and non-spinal fractures by 23%, while 400 IU was not sufficient for fracture prevention.

    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64.

    Full Abstract:

    CONTEXT: The role and dose of oral vitamin D supplementation in nonvertebral fracture prevention have not been well established.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in preventing hip and nonvertebral fractures in older persons.

    DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of English and non-English articles using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2005), and EMBASE (1991-2005). Additional studies were identified by contacting clinical experts and searching bibliographies and abstracts presented at the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (1995-2004). Search terms included randomized controlled trial (RCT), controlled clinical trial, random allocation, double-blind method, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fractures, humans, elderly, falls, and bone density.

    STUDY SELECTION: Only double-blind RCTs of oral vitamin D supplementation (cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol) with or without calcium supplementation vs calcium supplementation or placebo in older persons (> or =60 years) that examined hip or nonvertebral fractures were included.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Independent extraction of articles by 2 authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators.

    DATA SYNTHESIS: All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Five RCTs for hip fracture (n = 9294) and 7 RCTs for nonvertebral fracture risk (n = 9820) met our inclusion criteria. All trials used cholecalciferol. Heterogeneity among studies for both hip and nonvertebral fracture prevention was observed, which disappeared after pooling RCTs with low-dose (400 IU/d) and higher-dose vitamin D (700-800 IU/d), separately. A vitamin D dose of 700 to 800 IU/d reduced the relative risk (RR) of hip fracture by 26% (3 RCTs with 5572 persons; pooled RR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.88) and any nonvertebral fracture by 23% (5 RCTs with 6098 persons; pooled RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87) vs calcium or placebo. No significant benefit was observed for RCTs with 400 IU/d vitamin D (2 RCTs with 3722 persons; pooled RR for hip fracture, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88-1.50; and pooled RR for any nonvertebral fracture, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.24).

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin D supplementation between 700 to 800 IU/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and any nonvertebral fractures in ambulatory or institutionalized elderly persons. An oral vitamin D dose of 400 IU/d is not sufficient for fracture prevention.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin K1 supplementation was associated with improved bone mineral density. ALL SuperNutrition multivitamins, except Perfect Kids, have 80mcg or more of vitamin K1 in a daily dose.Vitamin K1 in Calcium Blend (80 mcg)

    In postmenopausal women, 80 mcg/day of vitamin K1 improved carboxylated osteocalcin, a measure which correlates with improved bone mineral density.

    Schaafsma A, et al. Vitamin D(3) and vitamin K(1) supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities: effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54:626.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60 -y-old postmenopausal Dutch women.

    DESIGN: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n=96) and low (T-score< or =-1; n=45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with 350-400 IU vitamin D(3), 80 microg vitamins K(1), vitamins K(1)+D(3), or placebo for 1 y. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and percentage carboxylated osteocalcin (%carbOC) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: Baseline %carbOC of the entire study population was positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Correspondingly, women with low BMD had lower %carbOC at baseline than women with normal BMD but this difference disappeared after 1 y of supplementation with vitamin K(1) ((mean+/-s.d.) 68+/-11% (95% CI, 64. 5-71.2%) vs 72+/-6% (95% CI, 70.1-72.9%), respectively). One year of supplementation with vitamin D(3) showed maximum increases in 25(OH)D of 33+/-29% (95% CI, 24.8-41.8%) and 68+/-58% (95% CI, 50.1-84.6%) in women with normal and low BMD, respectively. During winter, however, a 29% decline in maximum 25(OH)D levels was not prevented in women with low BMD.

    CONCLUSION: Daily supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with >400 IU vitamin D(3) is indicated to prevent a winter decline in 25(OH)D and to control serum parathyroid hormone levels. Daily supplementation with 80 microg vitamin K(1) seems to be necessary to reach premenopausal %carbOC levels. A stimulatory effect of calcium and/or vitamin D on %carbOC cannot be excluded.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Boron improved calcium and magnesium retention in the body and improved levels of bone-building hormones. All SuperNutrition Multivitamins for adults and Calcium Blend contain 3 mg of boron.

    Boron given to women in a dose of 3 mg/day resulted in improved levels of bone-building hormones as well as improved retention of both calcium and magnesium, two minerals that are crucial for building strong bones.

    Nielsen FH, et al. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB Journal. 1987 Nov;1(5):394-7.

    Full Abstract:

    A study was done to examine the effects of aluminum, magnesium, and boron on major mineral metabolism in postmenopausal women. This communication describes some of the effects of dietary boron on 12 women between the ages of 48 and 82 housed in a metabolic unit. A boron supplement of 3 mg/day markedly affected several indices of mineral metabolism of seven women consuming a low-magnesium diet and five women consuming a diet adequate in magnesium; the women had consumed a conventional diet supplying about 0.25 mg boron/day for 119 days. Boron supplementation markedly reduced the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium; the depression seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Boron supplementation depressed the urinary excretion of phosphorus by the low-magnesium, but not by the adequate-magnesium, women. Boron supplementation markedly elevated the serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone; the elevation seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Neither high dietary aluminum (1000 mg/day) nor an interaction between boron and aluminum affected the variables presented. The findings suggest that supplementation of a low-boron diet with an amount of boron commonly found in diets high in fruits and vegetables induces changes in postmenopausal women consistent with the prevention of calcium loss and bone demineralization.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Iron intake was associated with greater bone density in 5 bone sites. Daily doses of iron & calcium in Calcium Blend (40mg iron, 1,250mg calcium), Super Immune Multivitamin (24mg iron, 1,000mg calcium), Opti-Energy Pack (40mg iron, 1,250mg calcium).

    Increasing levels of iron intake (greater than 20 mg per day) in women whose calcium intake was 800 to 1200 mg daily were associated with greater bone mineral density in multiple bone sites in healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women. The authors noted that iron was necessary for healthy bone collagen, which gives bone its flexibility and ability to absorb impact with reduced risk of fracture.

    Harris MM, et al. Dietary iron is associated with bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. Journal of Nutrition 133;3598-3602, 2003.

    Full Abstract:

    Healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women (n = 242; ages 40-66 y) were included in the Bone, Estrogen, and Strength Training (BEST) Study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at five sites (lumbar spine L2-L4, trochanter, femur neck, Ward's triangle and total body) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean nutrient intakes were assessed using a 3-d diet record. Regression models were calculated using each BMD site as the dependent variable and iron as the independent variable. Covariates included in the models were years past menopause, fat-free mass, fat mass, use of hormone replacement therapy, total energy intake and dietary intake of protein and calcium. Using linear models, iron was associated with greater BMD at all sites (P < or = 0.01), even after adjusting for protein and/or calcium. Increasing levels of iron intake (>20 mg) were associated with greater BMD at several bone sites among women with a mean calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/d. Elevated iron intake was not associated with greater BMD among women with higher (>1200 mg/d) or lower calcium intakes (<800 mg/d). Dietary iron may be a more important factor in bone mineralization than originally thought and, its combined effect with calcium on BMD warrants exploration in future studies.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin C supplementation increased spinal bone density.Daily dose of vitamin C in Women’s Blend (1000 mg), PreNatal Blend (1000 mg), Calcium Blend (1000 mg), Opti-Energy Pack (1200 mg), Menopause Multiple (1500 mg), Super Immune Multivitamin (1500 mg).

    Postmenopausal women who were regular vitamin C supplement users had higher bone mineral density than women not taking supplemental C; those who took 1,000 mg/day over a three-year time period had 5 percent greater spinal bone density than women who took 500 mg.

    Morton DJ, et al. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2001, 16:135-40.

    Full Abstract:

    Vitamin C is known to stimulate procollagen, enhance collagen synthesis, and stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for osteoblast formation. Studies of dietary vitamin C intake and the relation with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conflicting, probably because of the well-known limitations of dietary nutrient assessment questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent relation of daily vitamin C supplement use with BMD in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women. Subjects were 994 women from a community-based cohort of whom 277 women were regular vitamin C supplement users. Vitamin C supplement use was validated. Daily vitamin C supplement intake ranged from 100 to 5,000 mg; the mean daily dose was 745 mg. Average duration of use was 12.4 years; 85% had taken vitamin C supplements for more than 3 years. BMD levels were measured at the ultradistal and midshaft radii, hip, and lumbar spine. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and total calcium intake, vitamin C users had BMD levels approximately 3% higher at the midshaft radius, femoral neck, and total hip (p < 0.05). In a fully adjusted model, significant differences remained at the femoral neck (p < 0.02) and marginal significance was observed at the total hip (p < 0.06). Women taking both estrogen and vitamin C had significantly higher BMD levels at all sites. Among current estrogen users, those also taking vitamin C had higher BMD levels at all sites, with marginal significance achieved at the ultradistal radius (p < 0.07), femoral neck (p < 0.07), and total hip (p < 0.09). Women who took vitamin C plus calcium and estrogen had the highest BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.001), total hip (p = 0.05), ultradistal radius (p = 0.02), and lumbar spine. Vitamin C supplement use appears to have a beneficial effect on levels of BMD, especially among postmenopausal women using concurrent estrogen therapy and calcium supplements.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Magnesium increased the density of the type of bone tissue most severely affected by osteoporosis.Magnesium in Women’s Blend (600 mg), Menopause Multiple (600 mg), Super Immune Multivitamin (600 mg), Opti-Energy Pack (700 mg)

    Magnesium given in doses of 250-750 mg for six months, followed by 18 months in doses of 250 mg, increased the density of trabecular bone tissue, the type most severely affected by osteoporosis, between 1 and 8 percent for 71 percent of postmenopausal women in this 2-year study.

    Stendig-Lindberg G, et al. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnesium Research. 1993 Jun;6(2):155-63.

    Full Abstract:

    Since magnesium regulates calcium transport, and magnesium replacement in magnesium-deficient postmenopausal patients resulted in unexpected improvement in documented osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of magnesium treatment on trabecular bone density in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thirty-one postmenopausal patients (mean age +/- SD = 57.6 +/- 10.6 years), consecutively admitted to the Back Rehabilitation Unit with musculoskeletal pain of non-malignant origin and bone density values of < or = 1.19 g/cm3 (measured by Compton Bone Densitometer), received two to six tablets daily of 125 mg each of magnesium hydroxide (Magnesium Magma USP/; 'Mazor', Israel) for 6 months and two tablets for another 18 months in a 2 year, open, controlled therapeutic trial. Twenty-three symptom-free postmenopausal women (mean +/- SD = 61.2 +/- 6.2 years) whose bone density was concurrently assessed at the same laboratory and who were found to have osteoporosis but refused treatment, served as controls. No new fractures occurred. Twenty-two patients (71 per cent) responded by a 1-8 per cent rise of bone density. The mean bone density of all treated patients increased significantly after 1 year (P < 0.02) and remained unchanged after 2 years (P > 0.05). The mean bone density of the responders increased significantly both after one year (P < 0.001) and after 2 years (P < 0.02), while in untreated controls, the mean bone density decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The disparity between the initial mean bone density and bone density after one year in all osteoporotic patients and in the responders differed significantly from that of the controls (both P < 0.001).

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Calcium, zinc, manganese and copper, taken together, increased bone density.Women’s Blend, Menopause Multiple, Super Immune Multivitamin , Opti-Energy Pack, PreNatal Blend and Calcium Blend all contain or exceed these amounts in a daily dose.

    Calcium (1,000 mg) with zinc (15 mg), manganese (5 mg) and copper (2.5 mg) increased bone density in postmenopausal women, while placebo resulted in bone loss.

    Strause L, et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. Journal of Nutrition 1994 Jul;124(7):1060-4.

    Full Abstract:

    The effects of calcium supplementation (as calcium citrate malate, 1000 mg elemental Ca/d) with and without the addition of zinc (15.0 mg/d), manganese (5.0 mg/d) and copper (2.5 mg/d) on spinal bone loss (L2-L4 vertebrae) was evaluated in healthy older postmenopausal women (n = 59, mean age 66 y) in a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Changes (mean +/- SEM) in bone density were -3.53 +/- 1.24% (placebo), -1.89 +/- 1.40% (trace minerals only), -1.25 +/- 1.46% (calcium only) and 1.48 +/- 1.40% (calcium plus trace minerals). Bone loss relative to base-line value was significant (P = 0.0061) in the placebo group but not in the groups receiving trace minerals alone, calcium alone, or calcium plus trace minerals. The only significant group difference occurred between the placebo group and the group receiving calcium plus trace minerals (P = 0.0099). These data suggest that bone loss in calcium-supplemented, older postmenopausal women can be further arrested by concomitant increases in trace mineral intake.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D important for pregnancy.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (2,000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (4,000 IU)

    Vitamin D given to pregnant women was strongly associated with half the risk for pre-term delivery, with the greatest effect seen with 4000 IU of daily supplemental vitamin D.

    Hollis BW et al. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Double blind randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 October;26(10):2341-57.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (vitD) deficiency during pregnancy is a serious public health issue, affecting mother and fetus. Establishing optimal vitD requirements of pregnant women is vital in preventing vitD deficiency and its health-associated comorbidities.
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of high dose vitD supplementation in decreasing pregnancy comorbidity risks.
    DESIGN/METHODS: Following their consent, pregnant women 12-16 wks' gestation were randomized into 1 of 3 tx grps stratified by race: 400, 2000 or 4000 IU vitD3/day until delivery. Women were evaluated for safety (Abstr#750939), efficacy and effectiveness with monthly 25(OH)D; 1,25(OH)2D; serum Ca, Cr, phos, and urinary Ca/Cr levels, all measured using standardized methodology. Comorbidities of pregnancy (preeclampsia, gest diabetes, any infection, preterm labor (PTL)/preterm birth (PTB)<37 wks GA) were recorded prospectively for each subject. Investigators and health team were blinded to tx grp.
    RESULTS: Of the 494 women who enrolled in the study, 350 women continued until delivery: 98 African American (AA), 137 Hispanic (Hisp) and 115 Caucasian (Cauc) women; with 111 controls, 122 in 2000 IU and 117 in 4000 IU groups. There were no differences in baseline vitD status between dose groups. The mean 25(OH)D by dose group at delivery, as chronic level, and 1-month before delivery were significantly different between control and 2000, control and 4000, and 2000 vs. 4000 (p<0.0001). 25(OH)D had a direct influence on 1,25(OH)2D levels throughout pregnancy (p<0.0001) with 25(OH)D of 40 ng/mL required to obtain maximum 1,25(OH)2D production. In bivariate analyses controlling for race, PTL/PTB and infection were inversely related to 25(OH)D and were lowest in the 4000 IU grp (p<0.0001). In logistic regression, comparing 400 vs. 4000 IU and controlling for race, the risk of comorbidities were 0.50 (CI 0.27-0.95; p=0.03) among those in the 4000 IU grp. Using least sq means, when adjusting for race, 25(OH)D of women with comorbidities was 33.4 ng/mL compared to 39.0 ng/mL in those women without (p<0.008).
    CONCLUSIONS: VitD sufficiency was strongly associated with decreased risk for PTL/PTB and infection during pregnancy and comorbities of pregnancy, with the greatest effect with 4000 IU vitamin D/day regimen. Therefore, to attain a minimal 25(OH)D level of 40 ng/mL, we recommend 4000 IU/day for all pregnant women.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D improves the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (3,000 IU)

    This double blind trial of pregnant women showed that daily supplementation with 1,000 IU of vitamin D resulted in twice as many babies being born with healthier birth weights.

    Maxwell JD. Vitamin D supplements enhance weight gain and nutritional status in pregnant Asians. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1981 Oct;88(10):987-91.

    Full Abstract:

    In a double blind trial of supplementary vitamin D (1000 iu daily) administered in the last trimester of pregnancy to Asian women living in London, supplemented mothers gained weight faster (63.3 g/day) than those in the control group (46.4 g/day), and at term had significantly higher plasma levels of retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin indicating better protein-calorie nutrition. Maternal weight gain correlated with postpartum levels of both retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin. Almost twice as many infants in the unsupplemented group weighed under 2500 g at birth, and had significantly lower retinol binding protein levels than infants of supplemented mothers. The nutritional benefits of supplementation provide further support for the routine administration of vitamin D to all British Asians during pregnancy.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Multivitamins improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    This study showed a small, significant increase in mean birth weight among infants of mothers receiving multiple micronutrients compared with infants of mothers receiving only iron-folic acid supplements. Larger micronutrient doses seemed to produce greater impact. Meaningful improvements were also observed in height and cognitive development of the children by 2 years of age.

    Shrimpton R, et al. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in developing-country settings: policy and program implications of the results of a meta-analysis. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2009 Dec;30(4 Suppl):S556-73.

    Full Abstract:

    PURPOSE: In the United States, African American women deliver preterm and low birth weight infants two to three times more frequently than their white counterparts. Our objective was to determine whether maternal periconceptional multivitamin (MVI) use is associated with this disparity.
    METHODS: As a secondary analysis of previously collected data from mothers of non-malformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2331 non-Hispanic white and 133 non-Hispanic black mother/infant pairs from 1998 through 2007. To estimate the effect of MVI use on birth outcomes, linear regression models were used.
    RESULTS: In white subjects, MVI use was not associated with birth weight, gestational age, or weight-for-gestational-age. However, in black subjects, MVI use was associated with a 536-gram increased birth weight (p=0.001). Black MVI users also had longer gestations (although not statistically significant). When birth weights were adjusted for gestational age using z scores, MVI use was associated with increased fetal growth in black infants (+0.86 z score units, 95% confidence interval: 0.35-1.36).
    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest MVI use may improve fetal growth and possibly gestational age in the offspring of African American women.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Antioxidants improve the chance of a healthy pregnancy. SimplyOne Prenatal has over 600mg of antioxidants in a daily dose & PreNatal Blend 2 has over 1,700 mg of antioxidants in a daily dose.

    This study showed that in women with high-risk pregnancies antioxidants helped prevent hypertensive disorders that can affect the health of both the mothers and the babies.

    Lin JH, et al. Effect of antioxidants on amelioration of high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Chinese Medical Journal (Engl). 2010 Sep;123(18):2548-54.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: This is a prospective clinical study based on a large sample gathered from multiple centers in China, subordinating to 10th Five-Year Plan of National Science & Technology Progression. We analyzed the high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) and estimated the potential effect of anti-oxidants administration, including vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and Salvia Miltiorrhiza L (SML), a Chinese herb medicine, in amelioration of the high-risk factors in pregnancy.

    METHODS: From April 2005 to July 2006, 4814 pregnant women from 24 national wide cooperative hospitals were involved in this prospective research. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: 1607 cases were in anti-oxidants group with administration of vitamins and SML; 3207 cases were in control group without any medicine given. Every participant was under monitoring for the morbidity of HDP and the high-risk factors were investigated in HDP cases in each group.

    RESULTS: (1) The morbidity of HDP was 3.55% in anti-oxidants group vs. 4.18% in control group. No statistical difference existed between the two groups (P > 0.05). (2) In anti-oxidants group, the HDP morbidities among three subgroups: VC + VE + SML, VC + VE and SML only, were 5.51%, 3.05% and 5% respectively. It showed no statistical difference among three remedies (P > 0.05). (3) The related index of factors affecting HDP showed in intensity sequence as follows: family HDP history > profession > education level > age > body weight. The incidence of HDP in normal population was 3.51%, and the incidence of HDP in high-risk pregnant women (family HDP history, heavy physical labor, low education level (middle school and below), age ≥ 40, body mass index ≥ 24) was 5.84%, which was obviously higher than that in normal population (P < 0.01). In anti-oxidants group, the probability of HDP in women with high-risk factors was 3.81%, which was obviously lower than that in control group with high-risk factors at 7.14% (P < 0.01). (4) In control group, the morbidity of HDP in women with family HDP history (especially with sisters'), heavy physical labor, middle school and below, age ≥ 35 was: 50.00%, 15.22%, 6.33%, 26.28% and 5.75%, respectively, and that in anti-oxidants group was 0, 7.69%, 3.74%, 9.27% and 2.67%, respectively, which was obviously lower than that in control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high-risk factors prone to induce HDP included: family history of HDP, heavy physical labor, low education level, aging and obesity. No impressive effect of anti-oxidants application was found in preventing HDP in general population but the remedy demonstrated positive effect on preventing HDP in pregnant women with high-risk factors.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (1) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    Folic acid requirements are said to double during pregnancy. While 400 mcg of folic acid can reduce spina bifida birth defects by about 40 percent, this study also showed that 1000 mcg reduced birth defects by about 50 percent.

    Garcia-Morales MA, et al. [Peri-conception use of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defect: current concepts] Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico 1996 Sep;64:418-21. [Article in Spanish]

    Full Abstract:

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is about 1.3 cases per 1000 live births. The higher incidence of NTDs occurs among certain ethnic groups, and geographic areas. The fetal morbimortality is high and the treatment for those babies who live is expensive with poor quality of live. It is unclear what biochemical mechanism involving folate explains the relationship of this vitamin to the pathogenesis of NTDs. However elevated concentrations of homocysteine or decreased methionine concentrations could be interfere with closure of the neural tube. The pharmacologic periconceptional intake of 0.4-4.0 mg/day of folic acid reduces the risk of occurrent NTDs by approximately 40-75%. A relatively high dietary intake of folate may also reduce the risk.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (2) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    This study also showed that folic acid could reduce the chances of neural tube birth defects.

    De-Regil LM, et al. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database System Review. 2010 Oct 6;10:CD007950.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that neural tube defects can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: This review updates and expands a previous Cochrane Review assessing the effects of periconceptional supplementation with folic acid to reduce neural tube defects (NTDs). We examined whether folate supplementation before and during early pregnancy can reduce neural tube and other birth defects (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes for mothers or babies.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2010). Additionally, we searched the international clinical trials registry platform and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed trials for methodological quality using the standard Cochrane criteria. Two authors independently assesed the trials for inclusion, one author extracted data and a second checked for accuracy.

    MAIN RESULTS: Five trials involving 6105 women (1949 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 4156 with no history of NTDs) were included. Overall, the results are consistent in showing a protective effect of daily folic acid supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) in preventing NTDs compared with no interventions/placebo or vitamins and minerals without folic acid (risk ratio (RR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.52). Only one study assessed the incidence of NTDs and the effect was not statistically significant (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.33) although no events were found in the group that received folic acid. Folic acid had a significant protective effect for reoccurrence (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.60). There is no statistically significant evidence of any effects on prevention of cleft palate, cleft lip, congenital cardiovascular defects, miscarriages or any other birth defects. There were no included trials assessing the effects of this intervention on maternal blood folate or anaemia at term. We found no evidence of short-term side effects.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Folic acid, alone or in combination with vitamins and minerals, prevents NTDs but does not have a clear effect on other birth defects.

    PMID: 20927767

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Multivitamins improve chances of a healthy baby. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    The use of vitamin supplements in the first 4 months of pregnancy showed a protective effect against the occurrence of isolated cleft palate and cleft lip, with or without cleft palate.

    Loffredo LC, Souza JM, Freitas JA, Mossey PA. UNESP-Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, Brazil. Oral clefts and vitamin supplementation. Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal 2001 Jan;38(1):76-83.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: The evidence linking low levels of folic acid and orofacial clefting (OFC) is presently equivocal. There is stronger evidence for the role of folic acid supplementation in protection against the occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects. The present investigation tested the hypotheses that cleft lip, cleft palate, or both are inversely associated with maternal intake of dietary and supplemental vitamins during the periconceptional period and first 4 months of pregnancy in a Brazilian population.

    DESIGN: A population-based, case-control study of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) and isolated cleft palate (CP) in a Brazilian population. In structured interviews, case histories were taken from the mothers of a consecutive sample of 450 infants born with nonsyndromic OFC.

    RESULTS: Mothers who had children with CL(P) were less likely to have been supplemented during the periconceptional period. The statistical significance of the difference in prevalence of the use of supplements between mothers of patients and of controls was greater for the CL(P) group: p < .05 for CP and p < .001 for CL(P). Multivariate analysis confirmed this finding of a protective effect for both types of orofacial cleft.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of vitamin supplements in the first 4 months of pregnancy was suggestive of a protective effect against the occurrence of CP and CL(P) in this population. The significance of an association between multivitamin supplementation and OFC and the possible role of gene/environment interaction are discussed.

    PMID: 11204686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Calcium improves the chances of a healthy baby.Calcium in SimplyOne Prenatal (200 mg) & PreNatal Blend (100 mg)

    This study said that if women with dietary calcium intake below 600 mg a day took supplemental calcium in doses of 1200 mg to 2000 mg daily during the last six months of pregnancy their babies were born with about 15 percent more bone mineral content.

    Koo WW, et al. Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstetrics and Gynecololgy. 1999 Oct;94(4):577-82.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of maternal calcium supplementation during pregnancy on fetal bone mineralization.

    METHODS: Healthy mothers with early ultrasound confirmation of dates and singleton pregnancies were enrolled in a double-masked study and randomized before 22 weeks' gestation to 2 g/day of elemental calcium or placebo until delivery. Maternal dietary intake at randomization and at 32-33 weeks' gestation was recorded with 24-hour dietary recalls. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of the whole body and lumbar spine of the neonates were performed before hospital discharge.

    RESULTS: The infants of 256 women (128 per group) had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements during the first week of life. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in gestational age, birth weight, or length of the infants, or in the total-body or lumbar spine bone mineral content. However, when bone mineral content was analyzed by treatment group within quintiles of maternal dietary calcium intake, total body bone mineral content (mean +/- standard error of the mean) was significantly greater in infants born to calcium-supplemented mothers (64.1+/-3.2 versus 55.7+/-2.7 g in the placebo group) in the lowest quintile of dietary calcium intake (less than 600 mg/day). The effect of calcium supplementation remained significant after adjustment for maternal age and maternal body mass index and after normalization for skeletal area and body length of the infant.

    CONCLUSION: Maternal calcium supplementation of up to 2 g/day during the second and third trimesters can increase fetal bone mineralization in women with low dietary calcium intake. However, calcium supplementation in pregnant women with adequate dietary calcium intake is unlikely to result in major improvement in fetal bone mineralization.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Multivitamins improve chances of a full-term pregnancy. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    Women who took multivitamin supplements starting in either the first or second trimesters of pregnancy had a twofold reduction in the risk of premature delivery (delivery at less than 37 completed weeks of pregnancy); those who started supplements in the first trimester had a fourfold reduction in the risk of very premature delivery (less than 33 completed weeks of pregnancy). Risk of low birth weight was also reduced twofold with supplement use starting in either the first or second trimester. Risk of very low birth weight (less than 3.3 pounds) was reduced sevenfold with first trimester supplementation and more than sixfold when supplementation started in the second trimester, thus greatly reducing the risk of infant illness and death.

    Scholl TO, et al. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997 Jul 15;146(2):134-41.

    Full Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by low income, urban women in the Camden Study (1985-1995, n = 1,430) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks) and infant low birth weight (< 2,500 g). Prenatal supplement use was corroborated by assay of circulating micronutrients at entry to care (no differences) and week 28 gestation (increased concentrations of folate and ferritin for supplement users). Compared with women who entered care during the first or second trimester but did not use prenatal supplements, supplement use starting in the first or second trimester was associated with approximately a twofold reduction in risk of preterm delivery. After controlling for potential confounding variables, risk of very preterm delivery (< 33 weeks' gestation) was reduced more than fourfold for first trimester users and approximately twofold when use dated from the second trimester. Infant low birth weight and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) risks were also reduced. Risk of low birth weight was reduced approximately twofold with supplement use during the first and second trimester. Diminution in risk was greater for very low birth weight infants, amounting to a sevenfold reduction in risk of very low birth weight with first trimester supplementation and a greater than six-fold reduction when supplement use started in the second trimester. Thus, in low income, urban women, use of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements may have the potential to diminish infant morbidity and mortality.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Vitamin A improves the chances of a full-term pregnancy. Vitamin A in SimplyOne Prenatal (5000 IU) & PreNatal Blend 2 (5000 IU)

    A study of 736 pregnant women showed that vitamin A (retinol, not beta-carotene) deficiency was associated with a 74 percent increased chance of premature delivery. Total Vitamin A intake from supplements should be at least 2,500 IU but not more than 10,000 IU during pregnancy. (The World Health Organization says “It is safe to give fertile women, independent of their vitamin A status, as much as 10,000 IU daily at any time during pregnancy.”)

    Radhika MS, et al. Effects of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on maternal and child health. British Journal of Gynecology 2002 Jun;109(6):689-93.
    (The World Health Organization says “It is safe to give fertile women, independent of their vitamin A status, as much as 10,000 IU daily at any time during pregnancy.”)

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between biochemical vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy and maternal and fetal health.

    DESIGN: A cross sectional clinical study.

    SETTING: Antenatal clinic of nutrition unit of Niloufer Hospital catering for a low socio-economic population, and a private nursing home (Swapna nursing home) catering for a high socio-economic population.

    POPULATION: 736 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy belonging to low (n = 522) and high socio-economic groups (n = 214).

    METHODS: All the women were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometric and obstetric examination. Night blindness was assessed by administering the standard WHO questionnaire. Birthweight and gestational age of the infants, maternal anaemia and development of pregnancy-induced hypertension in the mother were recorded. Haemoglobin and serum retinol were estimated at the time of recruitment to the study.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum retinol levels, anaemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, birth weight and gestational age of the infant.

    RESULTS: Night blindness was observed in 2.9% of the women and subclincal vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol <20 microg/dL with no clinical signs) in 27% of the women. Moderate to severe anaemia was observed in 41.2% of the women, and 15.8% of the women developed pregnancy-induced hypertension. Sixty-one (9.4%) women delivered preterm. Univariate analysis identified a significant association between serum retinol <20 microg/dL and preterm delivery (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.96), maternal anaemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.28-2.60) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.02-2.83). After adjusting for the confounding variables (body mass index, parity, age and socio-economic status) in a multivariate analysis, the significant associations between serum retinol <20 microg/dL and preterm delivery (P = 0.02) and anaemia (P = 0.003) persisted, while that for pregnancy-induced hypertension disappeared (P = 0.71).

    CONCLUSION: The study suggests that subclinical vitamin A deficiency is a problem during the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum concentration of retinol <20 microg/dL appears to indicate a deficient status, and is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and maternal anaemia.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Vitamin C improves chances of a full-term pregnancy. Vitamin C in PreNatal Blend 2 (1200 mg)

    This study showed that pregnant women who had the most vitamin C intake (≥362 mg/day) from food and supplements had twice as much chance of a full-term pregnancy as women who consumed the least amount of vitamin C (<169 mg/day).

    Siega-Riz AM, et al. Vitamin C intake and the risk of pre-term delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology August 2003;189(2):519-525.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Ascorbic acid deficiency may lead to premature rupture of the membranes.

    STUDY DESIGN: The study included a prospective cohort of pregnant women, aged >16 years, with singleton gestations who received care at one of four prenatal clinics in central North Carolina from 1995 through 1998. Vitamin C intake pre-conceptionally and during the second trimester was examined for its association with preterm delivery and subsets of preterm labor, premature rupture of the membranes, and medical induction in 2064 women.

    RESULTS: Women who had total vitamin C intakes of <10th percentile pre-conceptionally had twice the risk of preterm delivery because of premature rupture of the membranes (relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1, 4.5). This risk was attenuated slightly for second-trimester intake (relative risk, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8, 3.5). The elevated risk of preterm premature rupture of the membranes was greatest for women with a low vitamin C intake during both time periods.

    CONCLUSION: Because diet and supplement use are modifiable behaviors, corroboration of these findings would suggest a possible intervention strategy.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Multivitamins taken in the first and second trimesters significantly improved the chances of full birth weight. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    The study showed that women who took multi-vitamin supplements during the first and second trimester showed that there was 86% better chance of full birth weight when multivitamins were taken in the first trimester and 84% better chance of full birth weight when multi-vitamin use started in the second trimester.

    Scholl TO, et al. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 Jul 15;146(2):134-41.

    Full Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by low income, urban women in the Camden Study (1985-1995, n = 1,430) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks) and infant low birth weight (< 2,500 g). Prenatal supplement use was corroborated by assay of circulating micronutrients at entry to care (no differences) and week 28 gestation (increased concentrations of folate and ferritin for supplement users). Compared with women who entered care during the first or second trimester but did not use prenatal supplements, supplement use starting in the first or second trimester was associated with approximately a twofold reduction in risk of preterm delivery. After controlling for potential confounding variables, risk of very preterm delivery (< 33 weeks' gestation) was reduced more than fourfold for first trimester users and approximately twofold when use dated from the second trimester. Infant low birth weight and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) risks were also reduced. Risk of low birth weight was reduced approximately twofold with supplement use during the first and second trimester. Diminution in risk was greater for very low birth weight infants, amounting to a sevenfold reduction in risk of very low birth weight with first trimester supplementation and a greater than sixfold reduction when supplement use started in the second trimester. Thus, in low income, urban women, use of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements may have the potential to diminish infant morbidity and mortality.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Folic acid at 1,000 mcg improves the chances of full birth weight.Folic acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1000 mcg)

    This study showed that supplementation with 400 mcg of folic acid or more per day resulted in lower homocysteine and higher birth weight as folic acid dosages increased.

    Fryer AA, et al. Quantitative, high-resolution epigenetic profiling of CpG loci identifies associations with cord blood plasma homocysteine and birth weight in humans. Epigenetics 6:1, 86-94; January 2011.

    Full Abstract:

    Supplementation with folic acid during pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects and low birth weight. It is thought that folate and other one-carbon intermediates might secure these clinical effects via DNA methylation. We examined the effects of folate on the human methylome using quantitative interrogation of 27,578 CpG loci associated with 14,496 genes at single-nucleotide resolution across 12 fetal cord blood samples. Consistent with previous studies, the majority of CpG dinucleotides located within CpG islands exhibited hypo-methylation while those outside CpG islands showed mid-high methylation. However, for the first time in human samples, unbiased analysis of methylation across samples revealed a significant correlation of methylation patterns with plasma homocysteine, LINE-1 methylation and birth weight centile. Additionally, CpG methylation significantly correlated with either birth weight or LINE-1 methylation were predominantly located in CpG islands. These data indicate that levels of folate-associated intermediates in cord blood reflect their influence and consequences for the fetal epigenome and potentially on pregnancy outcome. In these cases, their influence might be exerted during late gestation or reflect those present during the peri-conceptual period.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Iron at 30 mg daily improves the chances of full birth weight. Iron in SimplyOne Prenatal (30 mg) & PreNatal Blend (40 mg)

    In this randomized placebo-controlled study of 513 prenatal women, 30 mg of iron per day resulted in significantly higher average birth weight and significantly fewer low-birth-weight babies with 77.7% low-birth-weight babies delivered prematurely.

    Cogswell ME, et al. Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial1,2,3 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 4, 773-781, October 2003.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: The need for prophylactic iron during pregnancy is uncertain.

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that administration of a daily iron supplement from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation to initially iron-replete, nonanemic pregnant women would reduce the prevalence of anemia at 28 wk and increase birth weight.

    DESIGN: Between June 1995 and September 1998, 513 low-income pregnant women in Cleveland were enrolled in the study before 20 wk of gestation. Of these, 275 had a hemoglobin concentration ≥ 110 g/L and a ferritin concentration ≥ 20 µg/L and were randomly assigned to receive a monthly supply of capsules containing either 30 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate or placebo until 28 wk of gestation. At 28 and 38 wk of gestation, women with a ferritin concentration of 12 to < 20 µg/L or < 12 µg/L received 30 and 60 mg Fe/d, respectively, regardless of initial assignment. Almost all the women received some supplemental iron during pregnancy. We obtained infant birth weight and gestational age at delivery for 117 and 96 of the 146 and 129 women randomly assigned to receive iron and placebo, respectively.

    RESULTS: Compared with placebo, iron supplementation from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation did not significantly affect the overall prevalence of anemia or the incidence of preterm births but led to a significantly higher mean (± SD) birth weight (206 ± 565 g; P = 0.010), a significantly lower incidence of low-birth-weight infants (4% compared with 17%; P = 0.003), and a significantly lower incidence of preterm low-birth-weight infants (3% compared with 10%; P = 0.017).

    Conclusion: Prenatal prophylactic iron supplementation deserves further examination as a measure to improve birth weight and potentially reduce health care costs.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Zinc at 25 mg daily improves the chances of full birth weight. Zinc in SimplyOne Prenatal (32 mg) & PreNatal Blend (30 mg)

    This randomized placebo-controlled study of 580 pregnant women showed that women who took 25 mg of zinc per day had babies with significantly greater birth weight compared to women who took no zinc.

    Goldenberg, RL, et al. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995;274(6):463-468.

    Full Abstract:

    Objective: To evaluate whether zinc supplementation during pregnancy is associated with an increase in birth weight.

    Design: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Setting: Outpatient clinic and delivery service at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

    Patients: Five hundred eighty medically indigent but otherwise healthy African-American pregnant women with plasma zinc levels below the median at enrollment in prenatal care, randomized at 19 weeks' gestational age. Women were subdivided by the population median body mass index of 26 kg/m2 into two groups for additional analyses.

    Intervention: Women who were taking a non—zinc-containing prenatal multivitamin/mineral tablet were randomized to receive either a daily dose of 25 mg of zinc or a placebo until delivery.

    Main Outcome Measures: Birth weight, gestational age at birth, and head circumference at birth.

    Results: In all women, infants in the zinc supplement group had a significantly greater birth weight (126 g, P=.03) and head circumference (0.4 cm, P=.02) than infants in the placebo group. In women with a body mass index less than 26 kg/m2, zinc supplementation was associated with a 248-g higher infant birth weight (P=.005) and a 0.7-cm larger infant head circumference (P=.007). Plasma zinc concentrations were significantly higher in the zinc supplement group.

    Conclusions: Daily zinc supplementation in women with relatively low plasma zinc concentrations in early pregnancy is associated with greater infant birth weights and head circumferences, with the effect occurring predominantly in women with a body mass index less than 26 kg/m2.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne 50+ womenANTI-AGING: Higher folate levels were associated with improved bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    Two studies showed that higher folate intake were associated with improved bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, the group of people who are most likely to lose bone. Folic acid most likely works well for people who have less problems with bone loss, such as younger women and men.

    Mulitiple citations - please read abstracts

    Full Abstract:

    Cagnacci A, et al. Relation of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 to bone mineral density of postmenopausal women. Bone. 20-03 Dec;33(6):956-9.

    Genetic hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with skeletal abnormalities and osteoporosis. We tested whether levels of homocysteine and critical co-enzymes of homocysteine metabolism, such as vitamin B12 and folate, are related to lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA in 161 postmenopausal women. Folate but not homocysteine or vitamin B12, was lower in osteoporotic than normal women (7.2 +/- 0.9 ng/L vs 11.4 +/- 0.7 ng/L, P < 0.003). Folate, but not homocysteine or vitamin B12, was independently related to BMD (r = 0.254, P < 0.011). BMD progressively increased from the lowest to the highest folate quartile (1.025 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 vs 1.15 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, P < 0.01) even when covaried for weight, which was the only other variable related to BMD. The present data suggest a major association between folate and bone mineralization.



    Full Abstract:

    Cagnacci A, et al. Relation of folates, vitamin B12 and homocysteine to vertebral bone mineral density change in postmenopausal women. A five-year longitudinal evaluation. Bone 2008 Feb;42(2):314-20. Epub 2007 Nov 12.

    Elevation of homocysteine is associated with an increased risk for bone fractures. Whether the risk is due to homocysteine or to the reduced levels of cofactors necessary for its metabolisation, such as folates or vitamin B12, is not completely clear. In this study we wanted to determine whether in postmenopausal women, levels of folates, homocysteine or vitamin B12 are predictive of the rate of vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) change. The study was conducted at the centre for the menopause of our university hospital. Between September 2001 and March 2002, 161 healthy postmenopausal women volunteered for a cross-sectional evaluation of BMD and levels of serum folates, homocysteine and vitamin B12. Women were recalled for a second evaluation of vertebral BMD after about 5 years. Women having used anti-resorptive therapies for more than 1 year were excluded. The analysis was possible in 117 postmenopausal women. The annual rate of vertebral BMD change was independently related to levels of folates (coefficient of regression (CR): 2.040; 95%CI: 0.483, 3.596; p=0.011), and initial BMD values (CR: -0.060; 95%CI: -0.117, -0.003; p=0.040). No significant relation was found between the change of vertebral BMD and homocysteine or vitamin B12. BMD values at the first (r=0.225; p=0.016) and the second (r=0.206; p=0.027) evaluation were related to levels of folates, but not of homocysteine or of vitamin B12. These data suggest an important role for folates deficiency in the vertebral BMD decline of postmenopausal women.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne 50+ MenANTI-AGING: Folic Acid improves memory. All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    This three-year double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 818 men and women, aged 50 to 70 years showed that, compared to placebo, those who took an 800 mcg folic acid supplement had improvements in three areas that commonly worsen with age, including improved memory (13 percent better memory scores), improved information processing (about 8 percent better), and improved nervous system processing (6 percent better sensorimotor speed).

    Durga J, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 20;369(9557):208-16.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Low folate and raised homocysteine concentrations in blood are associated with poor cognitive performance in the general population. As part of the FACIT trial to assess the effect of folic acid on markers of atherosclerosis in men and women aged 50-70 years with raised plasma total homocysteine and normal serum vitamin B12 at screening, we report here the findings for the secondary endpoint: the effect of folic acid supplementation on cognitive performance.

    METHODS: Our randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study took place between November, 1999, and December, 2004, in the Netherlands. We randomly assigned 818 participants 800 mug daily oral folic acid or placebo for 3 years. The effect on cognitive performance was measured as the difference between the two groups in the 3-year change in performance for memory, sensorimotor speed, complex speed, information processing speed, and word fluency. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov with trial number NCT00110604.

    FINDINGS: Serum folate concentrations increased by 576% (95% CI 539 to 614) and plasma total homocysteine concentrations decreased by 26% (24 to 28) in participants taking folic acid compared with those taking placebo. The 3-year change in memory (difference in Z scores 0.132, 95% CI 0.032 to 0.233), information processing speed (0.087, 0.016 to 0.158) and sensorimotor speed (0.064, -0.001 to 0.129) were significantly better in the folic acid group than in the placebo group.

    INTERPRETATION: Folic acid supplementation for 3 years significantly improved domains of cognitive function that tend to decline with age.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne 50+ MenANTI-AGING: Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Improve Memory. SuperNutrition's Simply One Men, Simply One Men 50+, Simply One Women 50+, Simply One Prenatal, Prenatal Blend, Men's Blend, Women's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Menopause Multiple, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack contain these antioxidant vitamins and minerals in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Eight years of supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals helped people aged 45 to 60 years old maintain their memories, with significantly improved memory even six years after the end of the supplementation period.

    Kesse-Guyot E, et al.French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011 Sep;94(3):892-9. Read Abstract for full citation.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Antioxidant properties of some vitamins and trace elements may help to prevent cognitive decline.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to estimate the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on the cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study 6 y after the end of the trial.

    DESIGN: This study included 4447 French participants aged 45-60 y who were enrolled in the SU.VI.MAX study (1994-2002), which was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. From 1994 to 2002, participants received daily vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 μg), and zinc (20 mg) in combination or as a placebo. In 2007-2009, the cognitive performance of participants was assessed with 4 neuropsychological tests (6 tasks). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to identify cognitive-function summary scores. Associations between antioxidant supplementation and cognitive functions, in the full sample and by subgroups, were estimated through ANOVA and expressed as mean differences and 95% CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics.

    RESULTS: Subjects receiving active antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.20). PCA indicated 2 factors that were interpreted as showing verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory was improved by antioxidant supplementation only in subjects who were nonsmokers or who had low serum vitamin C concentrations at baseline.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalANTI-AGING: Magnesium improves blood circulation and blood vessel health, if you have enough potency. SuperNutrition Anti-Aging Potency Men's, Anti-Aging Potency Women's and Opti-Energy Pack multivitamins give you 700 mg of magnesium in a daily dose.
    Shechter M, et al. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2000 Nov 7; 102(19):2353-8.

    Magnesium, at a dose of 730 mg per day, was shown in this study to cause a 12 percent improvement in the normal dilation response of arteries. Magnesium supplementation is also known to decrease artery wall dysfunction, resulting in better blood circulation.

    Because of better blood flow, more blood supply reaches heart muscles and the muscles of both the upper and lower extremities.

    As a result of this, there is a noticeable improvement in overall exercise and physical stress tolerance.

    SuperNutrition Anti-Aging Potency Men's, Anti-Aging Potency Women's and Opti-Energy Pack multivitamins give you 700 mg of magnesium in a daily dose.

    Click here to read the full text of the study.

    Full Abstract:

    Background: Magnesium blocks many of the physiological actions of calcium. Nevertheless, the impact of magnesium supplementation on endothelial function and exercise tolerance in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients has not been assessed.

    Methods and Results: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 stable CAD patients (41 men and 9 women, mean 6±SD age 67±11 years, age range 42 to 82 years) were randomized to receive either magnesium (n=25) (30 mmol/d Magnosolv-Granulat; Asta Medica Company, Inc) or placebo (n=25) for 6 months. Before and after 6 months, endotheliumdependent brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent NTG-mediated vasodilation were assessed with high-resolution (10-MHz) ultrasound. Exercise stress testing was performed with use of the Bruce protocol. Intracellular magnesium concentrations ([Mg2+]i) were assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (EXA) (normal mean6SD values 37.9±4.0 mEq/L). The magnesium therapy significantly increased postintervention ([Mg2+]i versus placebo (36.2±5.0 versus 32.7±2.7 mEq/L, P<0.02). There was a significant correlation in the total population between baseline [Mg2+]i and baseline FMD (r=0.48,P<0.01). The magnesium intervention resulted in a significant improvement in postintervention FMD (15.5±12.0%,P=0.02 compared with baseline), which was not evident with placebo (4.4±2.5%,P=0.78 compared with baseline). There was better exercise tolerance (9.3±2.0 versus 7.3±3.1 minutes, P=0.05) and less ischemic ST-segment changes (4 versus 10 patients, P=0.05) in the magnesium versus placebo groups, respectively.

    Conclusions: Oral magnesium therapy in CAD patients is associated with significant improvement in brachial artery endothelial function and exercise tolerance, suggesting a potential mechanism by which magnesium could beneficially alter outcomes in CAD patients. (Circulation. 2000;102:2353-2358.)

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalANTI-AGING: This document details the twelve nutrients in SuperNutrition formulas that improve bone density and bone strength, even reversing age-related bone loss, when you have enough potency. The following SuperNutrition products provide eleven or twelve of these nutrients in potencies equal to or superior to the potencies in the studies that confirm their effects on improving bone health. Women’s Blend, PreNatal Blend, Menopause Multiple, AntiAging Women, AntiAging Men, Opti-Energy Pack, Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack, SuperImmune Multivitamin, Calcium Blend.

    Full Abstract:

    New!Read the Document
  • AntiAging WomenANTI-AGING: A two-year placebo-controlled study showed that calcium supplementation reversed age-related bone loss in postmenopausal women when they took enough supplemental calcium, 1,000 mg per day. SuperNutrition AntiAging Potency Women, Women’s Blend, Menopause Multiple, Opti-Energy Pack, Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack and Calcium Blend all give you 1,000 mg or more of calcium per day.
    Storm D, et al. Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol Metab, 83(11):3817-25 1998 Nov.

    The authors said, ”The precise amount of calcium necessary to preserve bone mineral density in elderly women requires further studies, although in this study, at least 1,000 mg of supplemental calcium was adequate prophylaxis against femoral bone loss.”

    1. The placebo group of women lost 3% of their bone mineral density when they only got their calcium from food, an average of 683 mg per day;
    2. A second group lost less of their bone mineral density, 1.5%, when they added 345 mg of calcium to their diet from four glasses of milk for a total intake of 1,028 mg per day of calcium, but they still lost bone because 1,028 mg was not enough calcium;
    3. A third group suffered no bone loss, but gained 3% more total bone mineral density by adding 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate per day to their dietary calcium to equal 1,633 mg of total calcium intake.

    Click here to read the full study.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne MenFOR MEN: Nutrients in SuperNutrition Formulas For Men Improve Mental Functioning and Mental Health.
    Men's Blend, Opti-Energy Pack, Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack, SuperImmune Multivitamin and AntiAging Potency Men all have higher, more optimal potencies than the multivitamin in this study.

    This multi-vitamin/mineral supplement improved mental health, mental energy, and mental function and reduced feelings of stress in men 30 – 55 years old.

    Kennedy David O, et al. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (2010) 211(1):55-68 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men provide all the nutrients contained in the multivitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men, except vitamin C, are superior and more optimal. SuperNutrition Men's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in these SuperNutrition formulas are superior and more optimal.


    Full Abstract:

    Rationale
    A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults.

    Objectives
    The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment.

    Methods
    Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed.

    Results
    Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery.

    Conclusions
    Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne 50+ MenFOR MEN: Nutrients that support better memory for older men.

    This 2-year study of people aged 70 years and older who had mild memory problems showed that taking 800 mcg of folic acid, 500 mcg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6 daily helped people maintain their ability to plan and carry out a complex mental task; in people with initially elevated levels of homocysteine (an amino acid that can be elevated by B vitamin deficiency), the B vitamin supplement also helped people maintain memory and thinking ability.

    de Jager CA, et al. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2012 Jul;27(6):592-600.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men 50+ contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 225 mcg of vitamin B12, and 40 mg of vitamin B6. SuperNutrition Opti-Energy Pack contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12, and 250 mg of vitamin B6. SuperNutrition Super Immune Multivitamin contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12, and 200 mg of vitamin B6.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In the first report on the VITACOG trial, we showed that homocysteine-lowering treatment with B vitamins slows the rate of brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we report the effect of B vitamins on cognitive and clinical decline (secondary outcomes) in the same study.

    METHODS: This was a double-blind, single-centre study, which included participants with MCI, aged ≥70 y, randomly assigned to receive a daily dose of 0.8 mg folic acid, 0.5 mg vitamin B(12) and 20 mg vitamin B(6) (133 participants) or placebo (133 participants) for 2 y. Changes in cognitive or clinical function were analysed by generalized linear models or mixed-effects models.

    RESULTS: The mean plasma total homocysteine was 30% lower in those treated with B vitamins relative to placebo. B vitamins stabilized executive function (CLOX) relative to placebo (P = 0.015). There was significant benefit of B-vitamin treatment among participants with baseline homocysteine above the median (11.3 µmol/L) in global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination, P < 0.001), episodic memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall, P = 0.001) and semantic memory (category fluency, P = 0.037). Clinical benefit occurred in the B-vitamin group for those in the upper quartile of homocysteine at baseline in global clinical dementia rating score (P = 0.02) and IQCODE score (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: In this small intervention trial, B vitamins appear to slow cognitive and clinical decline in people with MCI, in particular in those with elevated homocysteine. Further trials are needed to see if this treatment will slow or prevent conversion from MCI to dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFOR KIDS: Multivitamins given daily to children improve accuracy in attention-based tasks, an indicator of healthy brain function. Perfect Kids, Immune Kids

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation of eighty-one children, aged 8 to 14 concluded that a low potency multi-vitamin/mineral formula improved accuracy in attention-based tasks, indicating improved brain function. SuperNutrition Perfect Kids provides all the vitamins and minerals in the multivitamin in the study, but in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Haskell CF, et al. Cognitive and mood effects in healthy children during 12 weeks' supplementation with multi-vitamin/minerals. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008 Nov;100(5):1086-96. Epub 2008 May 29.

    SuperNutrition Perfect Kids provides all the vitamins and minerals in the multivitamin in the study, but in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Full Abstract:

    Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are essential for optimal neural functioning. A high proportion of individuals, including children, suffer from deficiencies in one or more vitamins or minerals. This study investigated whether daily supplementation with vitamins/minerals could modulate cognitive performance and mood in healthy children. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation, eighty-one healthy children aged from 8 to 14 years underwent laboratory assessments of their cognitive performance and mood pre-dose and at 1 and 3 h post-dose on the first and last days of 12 weeks' supplementation with a commercially available vitamins/mineral product (Pharmaton Kiddi). Interim assessments were also completed at home after 4 and 8 weeks at 3 h post-dose. Each assessment comprised completion of a cognitive battery, delivered over the Internet, which included tasks assessing mood and the speed and accuracy of attention and aspects of memory (secondary, semantic and spatial working memory). The vitamin/mineral group performed more accurately on two attention tasks: 'Arrows' choice reaction time task at 4 and 8 weeks; 'Arrow Flankers' choice reaction time task at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A single task outcome (Picture Recognition errors) evinced significant decrements at 12 weeks. Mood was not modulated in any interpretable manner. Whilst it is possible that the significant improvements following treatment were due to non-significant numerical differences in performance at baseline, these results would seem to suggest that vitamin/mineral supplementation has the potential to improve brain function in healthy children. This proposition requires further investigation.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFOR KIDS: Zinc at 20mg improved the speed of visual memory, word recognition and sustained attention in 7th graders. Perfect Kids, Immune Kids

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 209 7th-graders found that 20 mg of daily zinc improved hand-to-eye coordination, attention, memory and problem-solving, where 10 mg or no zinc had no effect.

    Zinc affects cognition and psychosocial function of middle-school children. FASEB J. 2005;19:A973.(Abstr.)

    Perfect Kids Dosing and Age

    • For 4 - 6 year olds 1 tablet with 5 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 7 - 8 year olds 2 tablets with 10 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 9 - 11 year olds 3 tablets with 15 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 12 - 13 year old 4 tablets with 20 mg of zinc makes them smarter

    Full Abstract

    This placebo-controlled study of 209 7th graders compared daily zinc supplementation of 20 mg, 10 mg and no zinc (the placebo group). It showed that 20 mg of daily zinc decreased reaction time by 12% vs 6% in the placebo (no zinc) group in a visual memory task; increased “percent correct” by 9% vs 3% in the placebo group on a word recognition task; and increased the percent of “target detections” by 6% vs 1% in the placebo group in a sustained attention (vigilance) task. Zinc-treated girls had 10% less conduct problems than placebo girls.
    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) reduced PMS significantly at 100-200 mg per day. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in SimplyOne Women (100mg) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (250mg)

    This retrospective study of 630 women showed that while 100 mg to 150 mg of supplemental vitamin B6 reduced PMS in 65-68% of the women, 160 mg to 200 mg of Vitamin B6 reduced PMS in 70-88% of the women.

    Brush MG, et al. Pyridoxine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a retrospective survey in 630 patients. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1988 Nov;42(11):448-52.

    Full Abstract:

    We present a survey summarising the retrospective reports of the therapeutic effect of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in 630 women suffering from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) who attended a PMS clinic during the period 1976-1983. The daily doses of pyridoxine hydrochloride varied from 40 to 100 mg early in the study and from 120 to 200 mg in the later period of the investigations. The response to treatment was recorded as good (no significant residual complaints) in 40 per cent or more of patients taking 100-150 mg pyridoxine daily and in 60 per cent of patients treated with 160-200 mg daily. Together with partial response (useful benefit but still some significant complaints), the positive effect of the treatment increased to 65-68 per cent and 70-88 per cent respectively. No symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were reported.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin D intake of 706 IU per day was associated with almost half the risk of developing PMS compared to intake of 112 IU per day. Vitamin D in SimplyOne Women (3000IU) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (2500IU)

    Looking at the vitamin D intake of Women in the Nurses’ Health Study II, this study concluded that women with a higher median vitamin D intake of 706 IU per day were 41 percent less likely to develop PMS compared to those who got a median of only 112 IU per day.

     Bertone-Johnson ER, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005 Jun 13;165(11):1246-52.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most common disorders of premenopausal women. Studies suggest that blood calcium and vitamin D levels are lower in women with PMS and that calcium supplementation may reduce symptom severity, but it is unknown whether these nutrients may prevent the initial development of PMS.

    METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Participants were a subset of women aged 27 to 44 years and free from PMS at baseline in 1991, including 1057 women who developed PMS over 10 years of follow-up and 1968 women reporting no diagnosis of PMS and no or minimal menstrual symptoms. Intake of calcium and vitamin D was measured in 1991, 1995, and 1999 by a food frequency questionnaire.

    RESULTS: After adjustment for age, parity, smoking status, and other risk factors, women in the highest quintile of total vitamin D intake (median, 706 IU/d) had a relative risk of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.86) compared with those in the lowest quintile (median, 112 IU/d) (P = .01 for trend). The intake of calcium from food sources was also inversely related to PMS; compared with women with a low intake (median, 529 mg/d), participants with the highest intake (median, 1283 mg/d) had a relative risk of 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.97) (P = .02 for trend). The intake of skim or low-fat milk was also associated with a lower risk (P<.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of PMS. Large-scale clinical trials addressing this issue are warranted. Given that calcium and vitamin D may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis and some cancers, clinicians may consider recommending these nutrients even for younger women.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Chasteberry (Vitex agnus castus) extract has been shown to reduce PMS.Chasteberry extract in SimplyOne Women (30mg) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (100mg)

    This randomized placebo-controlled 3-month study of premenstrual syndrome in 170 women (average age 36) showed that 20 mg of chasteberry extract reduced PMS about 28 percent better than placebo. The women noted significant reductions in irritability, mood disturbances, anger, headache, and breast fullness compared to the placebo group.

    Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. British Medical Journal 2001 Jan 20;322:134-137.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of agnus castus fruit (Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440) with placebo for women with the premenstrual syndrome.

    DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles.

    SETTING: General medicine community clinics. Participants: 178 women were screened and 170 were evaluated (active 86; placebo 84). Mean age was 36 years, mean cycle length was 28 days, mean duration of menses was 4.5 days.

    INTERVENTIONS: Agnus castus (dry extract tablets) one tablet daily or matching placebo, given for three consecutive cycles.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main efficacy variable: change from baseline to end point (end of third cycle) in women's self assessment of irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, breast fullness, and other menstrual symptoms including bloating. Secondary efficacy variables: changes in clinical global impression (severity of condition, global improvement, and risk or benefit) and responder rate (50% reduction in symptoms).

    RESULTS: Improvement in the main variable was greater in the active group compared with placebo group (P<0.001). Analysis of the secondary variables showed significant (P<0.001) superiority of active treatment in each of the three global impression items. Responder rates were 52% and 24% for active and placebo, respectively. Seven women reported mild adverse events (four active; three placebo), none of which caused discontinuation of treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dry extract of agnus castus fruit is an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Calcium carbonate at 1,000 mg per day reduced PMS and menstrual symptoms 58 percent better than placebo.Calcium carbonate in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (1000 mg–carbonate & citrate)

    This randomized placebo-controlled study that assessed premenstrual and menstrual symptoms in 33 women showed that while taking 1000 mg of calcium carbonate daily 73% of the women reported fewer symptoms, including significant reductions in pain, water retention, and negative emotions like anger and irritability.

    Thys-Jacobs S, et al. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1989;4(3):183-9.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of calcium supplementation in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

    DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover trial.

    SETTING: Outpatient medical clinic of a large city hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight women were initially screened. Trial selection was based on a history of recurrent PMS symptoms and on the results of a prospective assessment of daily symptom scores. Only women with symptom scores during the late luteal phase that were at least 50% greater than those during the intermenstrual phase were selected. Thirty-three women completed the trial.

    INTERVENTION: A preliminary evaluation included physical examination, routine laboratory tests, dietary assessment, and psychiatric evaluation. Each participant received six months of treatment involving three months of daily calcium supplementation (1,000 mg of calcium carbonate) and three months of placebo.

    MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy was assessed prospectively by changes in daily symptom scores over a six-month period and retrospectively by an overall global assessment. Multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance on symptom ratings derived from daily PMS symptom scores demonstrated a reduction in symptoms on calcium treatment during both the luteal (p = 0.011) and the menstrual phases (p = 0.032) of the reproductive cycle. Calcium supplementation had no effect during the intermenstrual phase. Retrospective assessment of overall symptoms confirmed this reduction: 73% of the women reported fewer symptoms during the treatment phase on calcium, 15% preferred placebo, and 12% had no clear preference. Three premenstrual factors (negative affect [p = 0.045]; water retention [p = 0.003]; pain [p = 0.036]) and one menstrual factor (pain [p = 0.02]) were significantly alleviated by calcium.

    CONCLUSION: Calcium supplementation is a simple and effective treatment for premenstrual syndrome, but further studies will be needed to determine its precise role in PMS.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Magnesium at 200 and 360 mg per day reduced PMS.Magnesium in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (600 mg)

    Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showed that magnesium at 360 mg per day reduced headaches and pain, and at 200 mg reduced fluid retention with resulting reductions in weight gain, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness and abdominal bloating.

    Facchinetti F, et al. Magnesium prophylaxsis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991 May;31(5):298-301. Walker AF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. Journal of Womens Health 1998 Nov;7(9):1157-65.

    Full Abstract:

    The effects of oral Magnesium (Mg) pyrrolidone carboxylic acid were evaluated in 20 patients affected by menstrual migraine, in a double-blind, placebo controlled study. After a two cycles run-in period, the treatment (360 mg/day of Mg or placebo) started on the 15th day of the cycle and continued till the next menses, for two months. Oral Mg was then supplemented in an open design for the next two months. At the 2nd month, the Pain Total Index was decreased by both Placebo and Mg, with patients receiving active drug showing the lowest values (P less than 0.03). The number of days with headache was reduced only in the patients on active drug. Mg treatment also improved premenstrual complaints, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) scores. The reduction of PTI and MDQ scores was observed also at the 4th month of treatment, when Mg was supplemented in all the patients. Intracellular Mg++ levels in patients with menstrual migraine were reduced compared to controls. During oral Mg treatment, the Mg++ content of Lymphocytes (LC) and Polymorphonucleated cells (PMN) significantly increased, while no changes in plasma or Red Blood Cells were found. An inverse correlation between PTI and Mg++ content in PMN was demonstrated. These data point to magnesium supplementation as a further means for menstrual migraine prophylaxis, and support the possiblity that a lower migraine threshold could be related to magnesium deficiency. PMID: 1860787.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin E was shown to reduce PMS in 15 categories of symptoms. Vitamin E in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (400 IU)

    This randomized, placebo-controlled study confirmed a previous study by the same author, showing that with 400 IU of natural form vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) "all major categories of PMS symptoms are improved with supplementation of 400 IU of vitamin E daily." In all 15 categories of symptoms, vitamin E-supplemented women reported 27-42% reduction in severity.

    London RS, et al. Efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1987 Jun;32(6):400-4.

    Full Abstract:

    In a preliminary study, alpha-tocopherol supplementation was effective in reducing specific symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). To confirm these findings, we performed a randomized, double-blind study using d,alpha-tocopherol and placebo in a carefully screened population of women with PMS. Standardized PMS questionnaires were administered in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle to all subjects, before and after daily treatment with 400 IU d,alpha-tocopherol or placebo for three cycles. Of the 46 subjects enrolled, 41 completed the clinical trial. A significant improvement in certain affective and physical symptoms was noted in subjects treated with d,alpha-tocopherol.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin D only at higher doses reduced the rate of bone fractures.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Women (3,000 IU), Women’s Blend (2,500 IU), Simply One Men (3,000 IU), SuperNutrition Menopause Multiple (1,000 IU), SuperNutrition Opti-Energy Pack (1,000 IU), SuperNutrition Calcium Blend (1,000 IU)

    A major review of scientific studies since 1960 to 2005 found that 700-800 IU of supplemental vitamin D daily reduced the risk of hip fracture by 26% and non-spinal fractures by 23%, while 400 IU was not sufficient for fracture prevention.

    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64.

    Full Abstract:

    CONTEXT: The role and dose of oral vitamin D supplementation in nonvertebral fracture prevention have not been well established.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in preventing hip and nonvertebral fractures in older persons.

    DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of English and non-English articles using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2005), and EMBASE (1991-2005). Additional studies were identified by contacting clinical experts and searching bibliographies and abstracts presented at the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (1995-2004). Search terms included randomized controlled trial (RCT), controlled clinical trial, random allocation, double-blind method, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fractures, humans, elderly, falls, and bone density.

    STUDY SELECTION: Only double-blind RCTs of oral vitamin D supplementation (cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol) with or without calcium supplementation vs calcium supplementation or placebo in older persons (> or =60 years) that examined hip or nonvertebral fractures were included.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Independent extraction of articles by 2 authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators.

    DATA SYNTHESIS: All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Five RCTs for hip fracture (n = 9294) and 7 RCTs for nonvertebral fracture risk (n = 9820) met our inclusion criteria. All trials used cholecalciferol. Heterogeneity among studies for both hip and nonvertebral fracture prevention was observed, which disappeared after pooling RCTs with low-dose (400 IU/d) and higher-dose vitamin D (700-800 IU/d), separately. A vitamin D dose of 700 to 800 IU/d reduced the relative risk (RR) of hip fracture by 26% (3 RCTs with 5572 persons; pooled RR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.88) and any nonvertebral fracture by 23% (5 RCTs with 6098 persons; pooled RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87) vs calcium or placebo. No significant benefit was observed for RCTs with 400 IU/d vitamin D (2 RCTs with 3722 persons; pooled RR for hip fracture, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88-1.50; and pooled RR for any nonvertebral fracture, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.24).

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin D supplementation between 700 to 800 IU/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and any nonvertebral fractures in ambulatory or institutionalized elderly persons. An oral vitamin D dose of 400 IU/d is not sufficient for fracture prevention.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin K1 supplementation was associated with improved bone mineral density. ALL SuperNutrition multivitamins, except Perfect Kids, have 80mcg or more of vitamin K1 in a daily dose.Vitamin K1 in Calcium Blend (80 mcg)

    In postmenopausal women, 80 mcg/day of vitamin K1 improved carboxylated osteocalcin, a measure which correlates with improved bone mineral density.

    Schaafsma A, et al. Vitamin D(3) and vitamin K(1) supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities: effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54:626.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60 -y-old postmenopausal Dutch women.

    DESIGN: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n=96) and low (T-score< or =-1; n=45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with 350-400 IU vitamin D(3), 80 microg vitamins K(1), vitamins K(1)+D(3), or placebo for 1 y. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and percentage carboxylated osteocalcin (%carbOC) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: Baseline %carbOC of the entire study population was positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Correspondingly, women with low BMD had lower %carbOC at baseline than women with normal BMD but this difference disappeared after 1 y of supplementation with vitamin K(1) ((mean+/-s.d.) 68+/-11% (95% CI, 64. 5-71.2%) vs 72+/-6% (95% CI, 70.1-72.9%), respectively). One year of supplementation with vitamin D(3) showed maximum increases in 25(OH)D of 33+/-29% (95% CI, 24.8-41.8%) and 68+/-58% (95% CI, 50.1-84.6%) in women with normal and low BMD, respectively. During winter, however, a 29% decline in maximum 25(OH)D levels was not prevented in women with low BMD.

    CONCLUSION: Daily supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with >400 IU vitamin D(3) is indicated to prevent a winter decline in 25(OH)D and to control serum parathyroid hormone levels. Daily supplementation with 80 microg vitamin K(1) seems to be necessary to reach premenopausal %carbOC levels. A stimulatory effect of calcium and/or vitamin D on %carbOC cannot be excluded.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Boron improved calcium and magnesium retention in the body and improved levels of bone-building hormones. All SuperNutrition Multivitamins for adults and Calcium Blend contain 3 mg of boron.

    Boron given to women in a dose of 3 mg/day resulted in improved levels of bone-building hormones as well as improved retention of both calcium and magnesium, two minerals that are crucial for building strong bones.

    Nielsen FH, et al. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB Journal. 1987 Nov;1(5):394-7.

    Full Abstract:

    A study was done to examine the effects of aluminum, magnesium, and boron on major mineral metabolism in postmenopausal women. This communication describes some of the effects of dietary boron on 12 women between the ages of 48 and 82 housed in a metabolic unit. A boron supplement of 3 mg/day markedly affected several indices of mineral metabolism of seven women consuming a low-magnesium diet and five women consuming a diet adequate in magnesium; the women had consumed a conventional diet supplying about 0.25 mg boron/day for 119 days. Boron supplementation markedly reduced the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium; the depression seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Boron supplementation depressed the urinary excretion of phosphorus by the low-magnesium, but not by the adequate-magnesium, women. Boron supplementation markedly elevated the serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone; the elevation seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Neither high dietary aluminum (1000 mg/day) nor an interaction between boron and aluminum affected the variables presented. The findings suggest that supplementation of a low-boron diet with an amount of boron commonly found in diets high in fruits and vegetables induces changes in postmenopausal women consistent with the prevention of calcium loss and bone demineralization.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Iron intake was associated with greater bone density in 5 bone sites. Daily doses of iron & calcium in Calcium Blend (40mg iron, 1,250mg calcium), Super Immune Multivitamin (24mg iron, 1,000mg calcium), Opti-Energy Pack (40mg iron, 1,250mg calcium).

    Increasing levels of iron intake (greater than 20 mg per day) in women whose calcium intake was 800 to 1200 mg daily were associated with greater bone mineral density in multiple bone sites in healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women. The authors noted that iron was necessary for healthy bone collagen, which gives bone its flexibility and ability to absorb impact with reduced risk of fracture.

    Harris MM, et al. Dietary iron is associated with bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. Journal of Nutrition 133;3598-3602, 2003.

    Full Abstract:

    Healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women (n = 242; ages 40-66 y) were included in the Bone, Estrogen, and Strength Training (BEST) Study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at five sites (lumbar spine L2-L4, trochanter, femur neck, Ward's triangle and total body) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean nutrient intakes were assessed using a 3-d diet record. Regression models were calculated using each BMD site as the dependent variable and iron as the independent variable. Covariates included in the models were years past menopause, fat-free mass, fat mass, use of hormone replacement therapy, total energy intake and dietary intake of protein and calcium. Using linear models, iron was associated with greater BMD at all sites (P < or = 0.01), even after adjusting for protein and/or calcium. Increasing levels of iron intake (>20 mg) were associated with greater BMD at several bone sites among women with a mean calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/d. Elevated iron intake was not associated with greater BMD among women with higher (>1200 mg/d) or lower calcium intakes (<800 mg/d). Dietary iron may be a more important factor in bone mineralization than originally thought and, its combined effect with calcium on BMD warrants exploration in future studies.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin C supplementation increased spinal bone density.Daily dose of vitamin C in Women’s Blend (1000 mg), PreNatal Blend (1000 mg), Calcium Blend (1000 mg), Opti-Energy Pack (1200 mg), Menopause Multiple (1500 mg), Super Immune Multivitamin (1500 mg).

    Postmenopausal women who were regular vitamin C supplement users had higher bone mineral density than women not taking supplemental C; those who took 1,000 mg/day over a three-year time period had 5 percent greater spinal bone density than women who took 500 mg.

    Morton DJ, et al. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2001, 16:135-40.

    Full Abstract:

    Vitamin C is known to stimulate procollagen, enhance collagen synthesis, and stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for osteoblast formation. Studies of dietary vitamin C intake and the relation with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conflicting, probably because of the well-known limitations of dietary nutrient assessment questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent relation of daily vitamin C supplement use with BMD in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women. Subjects were 994 women from a community-based cohort of whom 277 women were regular vitamin C supplement users. Vitamin C supplement use was validated. Daily vitamin C supplement intake ranged from 100 to 5,000 mg; the mean daily dose was 745 mg. Average duration of use was 12.4 years; 85% had taken vitamin C supplements for more than 3 years. BMD levels were measured at the ultradistal and midshaft radii, hip, and lumbar spine. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and total calcium intake, vitamin C users had BMD levels approximately 3% higher at the midshaft radius, femoral neck, and total hip (p < 0.05). In a fully adjusted model, significant differences remained at the femoral neck (p < 0.02) and marginal significance was observed at the total hip (p < 0.06). Women taking both estrogen and vitamin C had significantly higher BMD levels at all sites. Among current estrogen users, those also taking vitamin C had higher BMD levels at all sites, with marginal significance achieved at the ultradistal radius (p < 0.07), femoral neck (p < 0.07), and total hip (p < 0.09). Women who took vitamin C plus calcium and estrogen had the highest BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.001), total hip (p = 0.05), ultradistal radius (p = 0.02), and lumbar spine. Vitamin C supplement use appears to have a beneficial effect on levels of BMD, especially among postmenopausal women using concurrent estrogen therapy and calcium supplements.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Magnesium increased the density of the type of bone tissue most severely affected by osteoporosis.Magnesium in Women’s Blend (600 mg), Menopause Multiple (600 mg), Super Immune Multivitamin (600 mg), Opti-Energy Pack (700 mg)

    Magnesium given in doses of 250-750 mg for six months, followed by 18 months in doses of 250 mg, increased the density of trabecular bone tissue, the type most severely affected by osteoporosis, between 1 and 8 percent for 71 percent of postmenopausal women in this 2-year study.

    Stendig-Lindberg G, et al. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnesium Research. 1993 Jun;6(2):155-63.

    Full Abstract:

    Since magnesium regulates calcium transport, and magnesium replacement in magnesium-deficient postmenopausal patients resulted in unexpected improvement in documented osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of magnesium treatment on trabecular bone density in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thirty-one postmenopausal patients (mean age +/- SD = 57.6 +/- 10.6 years), consecutively admitted to the Back Rehabilitation Unit with musculoskeletal pain of non-malignant origin and bone density values of < or = 1.19 g/cm3 (measured by Compton Bone Densitometer), received two to six tablets daily of 125 mg each of magnesium hydroxide (Magnesium Magma USP/; 'Mazor', Israel) for 6 months and two tablets for another 18 months in a 2 year, open, controlled therapeutic trial. Twenty-three symptom-free postmenopausal women (mean +/- SD = 61.2 +/- 6.2 years) whose bone density was concurrently assessed at the same laboratory and who were found to have osteoporosis but refused treatment, served as controls. No new fractures occurred. Twenty-two patients (71 per cent) responded by a 1-8 per cent rise of bone density. The mean bone density of all treated patients increased significantly after 1 year (P < 0.02) and remained unchanged after 2 years (P > 0.05). The mean bone density of the responders increased significantly both after one year (P < 0.001) and after 2 years (P < 0.02), while in untreated controls, the mean bone density decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The disparity between the initial mean bone density and bone density after one year in all osteoporotic patients and in the responders differed significantly from that of the controls (both P < 0.001).

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Calcium, zinc, manganese and copper, taken together, increased bone density.Women’s Blend, Menopause Multiple, Super Immune Multivitamin , Opti-Energy Pack, PreNatal Blend and Calcium Blend all contain or exceed these amounts in a daily dose.

    Calcium (1,000 mg) with zinc (15 mg), manganese (5 mg) and copper (2.5 mg) increased bone density in postmenopausal women, while placebo resulted in bone loss.

    Strause L, et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. Journal of Nutrition 1994 Jul;124(7):1060-4.

    Full Abstract:

    The effects of calcium supplementation (as calcium citrate malate, 1000 mg elemental Ca/d) with and without the addition of zinc (15.0 mg/d), manganese (5.0 mg/d) and copper (2.5 mg/d) on spinal bone loss (L2-L4 vertebrae) was evaluated in healthy older postmenopausal women (n = 59, mean age 66 y) in a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Changes (mean +/- SEM) in bone density were -3.53 +/- 1.24% (placebo), -1.89 +/- 1.40% (trace minerals only), -1.25 +/- 1.46% (calcium only) and 1.48 +/- 1.40% (calcium plus trace minerals). Bone loss relative to base-line value was significant (P = 0.0061) in the placebo group but not in the groups receiving trace minerals alone, calcium alone, or calcium plus trace minerals. The only significant group difference occurred between the placebo group and the group receiving calcium plus trace minerals (P = 0.0099). These data suggest that bone loss in calcium-supplemented, older postmenopausal women can be further arrested by concomitant increases in trace mineral intake.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D important for pregnancy.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (2,000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (4,000 IU)

    Vitamin D given to pregnant women was strongly associated with half the risk for pre-term delivery, with the greatest effect seen with 4000 IU of daily supplemental vitamin D.

    Hollis BW et al. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Double blind randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 October;26(10):2341-57.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (vitD) deficiency during pregnancy is a serious public health issue, affecting mother and fetus. Establishing optimal vitD requirements of pregnant women is vital in preventing vitD deficiency and its health-associated comorbidities.
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of high dose vitD supplementation in decreasing pregnancy comorbidity risks.
    DESIGN/METHODS: Following their consent, pregnant women 12-16 wks' gestation were randomized into 1 of 3 tx grps stratified by race: 400, 2000 or 4000 IU vitD3/day until delivery. Women were evaluated for safety (Abstr#750939), efficacy and effectiveness with monthly 25(OH)D; 1,25(OH)2D; serum Ca, Cr, phos, and urinary Ca/Cr levels, all measured using standardized methodology. Comorbidities of pregnancy (preeclampsia, gest diabetes, any infection, preterm labor (PTL)/preterm birth (PTB)<37 wks GA) were recorded prospectively for each subject. Investigators and health team were blinded to tx grp.
    RESULTS: Of the 494 women who enrolled in the study, 350 women continued until delivery: 98 African American (AA), 137 Hispanic (Hisp) and 115 Caucasian (Cauc) women; with 111 controls, 122 in 2000 IU and 117 in 4000 IU groups. There were no differences in baseline vitD status between dose groups. The mean 25(OH)D by dose group at delivery, as chronic level, and 1-month before delivery were significantly different between control and 2000, control and 4000, and 2000 vs. 4000 (p<0.0001). 25(OH)D had a direct influence on 1,25(OH)2D levels throughout pregnancy (p<0.0001) with 25(OH)D of 40 ng/mL required to obtain maximum 1,25(OH)2D production. In bivariate analyses controlling for race, PTL/PTB and infection were inversely related to 25(OH)D and were lowest in the 4000 IU grp (p<0.0001). In logistic regression, comparing 400 vs. 4000 IU and controlling for race, the risk of comorbidities were 0.50 (CI 0.27-0.95; p=0.03) among those in the 4000 IU grp. Using least sq means, when adjusting for race, 25(OH)D of women with comorbidities was 33.4 ng/mL compared to 39.0 ng/mL in those women without (p<0.008).
    CONCLUSIONS: VitD sufficiency was strongly associated with decreased risk for PTL/PTB and infection during pregnancy and comorbities of pregnancy, with the greatest effect with 4000 IU vitamin D/day regimen. Therefore, to attain a minimal 25(OH)D level of 40 ng/mL, we recommend 4000 IU/day for all pregnant women.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D improves the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (3,000 IU)

    This double blind trial of pregnant women showed that daily supplementation with 1,000 IU of vitamin D resulted in twice as many babies being born with healthier birth weights.

    Maxwell JD. Vitamin D supplements enhance weight gain and nutritional status in pregnant Asians. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1981 Oct;88(10):987-91.

    Full Abstract:

    In a double blind trial of supplementary vitamin D (1000 iu daily) administered in the last trimester of pregnancy to Asian women living in London, supplemented mothers gained weight faster (63.3 g/day) than those in the control group (46.4 g/day), and at term had significantly higher plasma levels of retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin indicating better protein-calorie nutrition. Maternal weight gain correlated with postpartum levels of both retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin. Almost twice as many infants in the unsupplemented group weighed under 2500 g at birth, and had significantly lower retinol binding protein levels than infants of supplemented mothers. The nutritional benefits of supplementation provide further support for the routine administration of vitamin D to all British Asians during pregnancy.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Multivitamins improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    This study showed a small, significant increase in mean birth weight among infants of mothers receiving multiple micronutrients compared with infants of mothers receiving only iron-folic acid supplements. Larger micronutrient doses seemed to produce greater impact. Meaningful improvements were also observed in height and cognitive development of the children by 2 years of age.

    Shrimpton R, et al. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in developing-country settings: policy and program implications of the results of a meta-analysis. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2009 Dec;30(4 Suppl):S556-73.

    Full Abstract:

    PURPOSE: In the United States, African American women deliver preterm and low birth weight infants two to three times more frequently than their white counterparts. Our objective was to determine whether maternal periconceptional multivitamin (MVI) use is associated with this disparity.
    METHODS: As a secondary analysis of previously collected data from mothers of non-malformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2331 non-Hispanic white and 133 non-Hispanic black mother/infant pairs from 1998 through 2007. To estimate the effect of MVI use on birth outcomes, linear regression models were used.
    RESULTS: In white subjects, MVI use was not associated with birth weight, gestational age, or weight-for-gestational-age. However, in black subjects, MVI use was associated with a 536-gram increased birth weight (p=0.001). Black MVI users also had longer gestations (although not statistically significant). When birth weights were adjusted for gestational age using z scores, MVI use was associated with increased fetal growth in black infants (+0.86 z score units, 95% confidence interval: 0.35-1.36).
    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest MVI use may improve fetal growth and possibly gestational age in the offspring of African American women.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Antioxidants improve the chance of a healthy pregnancy. SimplyOne Prenatal has over 600mg of antioxidants in a daily dose & PreNatal Blend 2 has over 1,700 mg of antioxidants in a daily dose.

    This study showed that in women with high-risk pregnancies antioxidants helped prevent hypertensive disorders that can affect the health of both the mothers and the babies.

    Lin JH, et al. Effect of antioxidants on amelioration of high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Chinese Medical Journal (Engl). 2010 Sep;123(18):2548-54.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: This is a prospective clinical study based on a large sample gathered from multiple centers in China, subordinating to 10th Five-Year Plan of National Science & Technology Progression. We analyzed the high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) and estimated the potential effect of anti-oxidants administration, including vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and Salvia Miltiorrhiza L (SML), a Chinese herb medicine, in amelioration of the high-risk factors in pregnancy.

    METHODS: From April 2005 to July 2006, 4814 pregnant women from 24 national wide cooperative hospitals were involved in this prospective research. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: 1607 cases were in anti-oxidants group with administration of vitamins and SML; 3207 cases were in control group without any medicine given. Every participant was under monitoring for the morbidity of HDP and the high-risk factors were investigated in HDP cases in each group.

    RESULTS: (1) The morbidity of HDP was 3.55% in anti-oxidants group vs. 4.18% in control group. No statistical difference existed between the two groups (P > 0.05). (2) In anti-oxidants group, the HDP morbidities among three subgroups: VC + VE + SML, VC + VE and SML only, were 5.51%, 3.05% and 5% respectively. It showed no statistical difference among three remedies (P > 0.05). (3) The related index of factors affecting HDP showed in intensity sequence as follows: family HDP history > profession > education level > age > body weight. The incidence of HDP in normal population was 3.51%, and the incidence of HDP in high-risk pregnant women (family HDP history, heavy physical labor, low education level (middle school and below), age ≥ 40, body mass index ≥ 24) was 5.84%, which was obviously higher than that in normal population (P < 0.01). In anti-oxidants group, the probability of HDP in women with high-risk factors was 3.81%, which was obviously lower than that in control group with high-risk factors at 7.14% (P < 0.01). (4) In control group, the morbidity of HDP in women with family HDP history (especially with sisters'), heavy physical labor, middle school and below, age ≥ 35 was: 50.00%, 15.22%, 6.33%, 26.28% and 5.75%, respectively, and that in anti-oxidants group was 0, 7.69%, 3.74%, 9.27% and 2.67%, respectively, which was obviously lower than that in control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high-risk factors prone to induce HDP included: family history of HDP, heavy physical labor, low education level, aging and obesity. No impressive effect of anti-oxidants application was found in preventing HDP in general population but the remedy demonstrated positive effect on preventing HDP in pregnant women with high-risk factors.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (1) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    Folic acid requirements are said to double during pregnancy. While 400 mcg of folic acid can reduce spina bifida birth defects by about 40 percent, this study also showed that 1000 mcg reduced birth defects by about 50 percent.

    Garcia-Morales MA, et al. [Peri-conception use of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defect: current concepts] Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico 1996 Sep;64:418-21. [Article in Spanish]

    Full Abstract:

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is about 1.3 cases per 1000 live births. The higher incidence of NTDs occurs among certain ethnic groups, and geographic areas. The fetal morbimortality is high and the treatment for those babies who live is expensive with poor quality of live. It is unclear what biochemical mechanism involving folate explains the relationship of this vitamin to the pathogenesis of NTDs. However elevated concentrations of homocysteine or decreased methionine concentrations could be interfere with closure of the neural tube. The pharmacologic periconceptional intake of 0.4-4.0 mg/day of folic acid reduces the risk of occurrent NTDs by approximately 40-75%. A relatively high dietary intake of folate may also reduce the risk.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (2) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    This study also showed that folic acid could reduce the chances of neural tube birth defects.

    De-Regil LM, et al. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database System Review. 2010 Oct 6;10:CD007950.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that neural tube defects can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: This review updates and expands a previous Cochrane Review assessing the effects of periconceptional supplementation with folic acid to reduce neural tube defects (NTDs). We examined whether folate supplementation before and during early pregnancy can reduce neural tube and other birth defects (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes for mothers or babies.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2010). Additionally, we searched the international clinical trials registry platform and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed trials for methodological quality using the standard Cochrane criteria. Two authors independently assesed the trials for inclusion, one author extracted data and a second checked for accuracy.

    MAIN RESULTS: Five trials involving 6105 women (1949 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 4156 with no history of NTDs) were included. Overall, the results are consistent in showing a protective effect of daily folic acid supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) in preventing NTDs compared with no interventions/placebo or vitamins and minerals without folic acid (risk ratio (RR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.52). Only one study assessed the incidence of NTDs and the effect was not statistically significant (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.33) although no events were found in the group that received folic acid. Folic acid had a significant protective effect for reoccurrence (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.60). There is no statistically significant evidence of any effects on prevention of cleft palate, cleft lip, congenital cardiovascular defects, miscarriages or any other birth defects. There were no included trials assessing the effects of this intervention on maternal blood folate or anaemia at term. We found no evidence of short-term side effects.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Folic acid, alone or in combination with vitamins and minerals, prevents NTDs but does not have a clear effect on other birth defects.

    PMID: 20927767

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Multivitamins improve chances of a healthy baby. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    The use of vitamin supplements in the first 4 months of pregnancy showed a protective effect against the occurrence of isolated cleft palate and cleft lip, with or without cleft palate.

    Loffredo LC, Souza JM, Freitas JA, Mossey PA. UNESP-Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, Brazil. Oral clefts and vitamin supplementation. Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal 2001 Jan;38(1):76-83.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: The evidence linking low levels of folic acid and orofacial clefting (OFC) is presently equivocal. There is stronger evidence for the role of folic acid supplementation in protection against the occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects. The present investigation tested the hypotheses that cleft lip, cleft palate, or both are inversely associated with maternal intake of dietary and supplemental vitamins during the periconceptional period and first 4 months of pregnancy in a Brazilian population.

    DESIGN: A population-based, case-control study of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) and isolated cleft palate (CP) in a Brazilian population. In structured interviews, case histories were taken from the mothers of a consecutive sample of 450 infants born with nonsyndromic OFC.

    RESULTS: Mothers who had children with CL(P) were less likely to have been supplemented during the periconceptional period. The statistical significance of the difference in prevalence of the use of supplements between mothers of patients and of controls was greater for the CL(P) group: p < .05 for CP and p < .001 for CL(P). Multivariate analysis confirmed this finding of a protective effect for both types of orofacial cleft.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of vitamin supplements in the first 4 months of pregnancy was suggestive of a protective effect against the occurrence of CP and CL(P) in this population. The significance of an association between multivitamin supplementation and OFC and the possible role of gene/environment interaction are discussed.

    PMID: 11204686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Calcium improves the chances of a healthy baby.Calcium in SimplyOne Prenatal (200 mg) & PreNatal Blend (100 mg)

    This study said that if women with dietary calcium intake below 600 mg a day took supplemental calcium in doses of 1200 mg to 2000 mg daily during the last six months of pregnancy their babies were born with about 15 percent more bone mineral content.

    Koo WW, et al. Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstetrics and Gynecololgy. 1999 Oct;94(4):577-82.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of maternal calcium supplementation during pregnancy on fetal bone mineralization.

    METHODS: Healthy mothers with early ultrasound confirmation of dates and singleton pregnancies were enrolled in a double-masked study and randomized before 22 weeks' gestation to 2 g/day of elemental calcium or placebo until delivery. Maternal dietary intake at randomization and at 32-33 weeks' gestation was recorded with 24-hour dietary recalls. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of the whole body and lumbar spine of the neonates were performed before hospital discharge.

    RESULTS: The infants of 256 women (128 per group) had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements during the first week of life. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in gestational age, birth weight, or length of the infants, or in the total-body or lumbar spine bone mineral content. However, when bone mineral content was analyzed by treatment group within quintiles of maternal dietary calcium intake, total body bone mineral content (mean +/- standard error of the mean) was significantly greater in infants born to calcium-supplemented mothers (64.1+/-3.2 versus 55.7+/-2.7 g in the placebo group) in the lowest quintile of dietary calcium intake (less than 600 mg/day). The effect of calcium supplementation remained significant after adjustment for maternal age and maternal body mass index and after normalization for skeletal area and body length of the infant.

    CONCLUSION: Maternal calcium supplementation of up to 2 g/day during the second and third trimesters can increase fetal bone mineralization in women with low dietary calcium intake. However, calcium supplementation in pregnant women with adequate dietary calcium intake is unlikely to result in major improvement in fetal bone mineralization.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Multivitamins improve chances of a full-term pregnancy. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    Women who took multivitamin supplements starting in either the first or second trimesters of pregnancy had a twofold reduction in the risk of premature delivery (delivery at less than 37 completed weeks of pregnancy); those who started supplements in the first trimester had a fourfold reduction in the risk of very premature delivery (less than 33 completed weeks of pregnancy). Risk of low birth weight was also reduced twofold with supplement use starting in either the first or second trimester. Risk of very low birth weight (less than 3.3 pounds) was reduced sevenfold with first trimester supplementation and more than sixfold when supplementation started in the second trimester, thus greatly reducing the risk of infant illness and death.

    Scholl TO, et al. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997 Jul 15;146(2):134-41.

    Full Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by low income, urban women in the Camden Study (1985-1995, n = 1,430) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks) and infant low birth weight (< 2,500 g). Prenatal supplement use was corroborated by assay of circulating micronutrients at entry to care (no differences) and week 28 gestation (increased concentrations of folate and ferritin for supplement users). Compared with women who entered care during the first or second trimester but did not use prenatal supplements, supplement use starting in the first or second trimester was associated with approximately a twofold reduction in risk of preterm delivery. After controlling for potential confounding variables, risk of very preterm delivery (< 33 weeks' gestation) was reduced more than fourfold for first trimester users and approximately twofold when use dated from the second trimester. Infant low birth weight and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) risks were also reduced. Risk of low birth weight was reduced approximately twofold with supplement use during the first and second trimester. Diminution in risk was greater for very low birth weight infants, amounting to a sevenfold reduction in risk of very low birth weight with first trimester supplementation and a greater than six-fold reduction when supplement use started in the second trimester. Thus, in low income, urban women, use of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements may have the potential to diminish infant morbidity and mortality.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Vitamin A improves the chances of a full-term pregnancy. Vitamin A in SimplyOne Prenatal (5000 IU) & PreNatal Blend 2 (5000 IU)

    A study of 736 pregnant women showed that vitamin A (retinol, not beta-carotene) deficiency was associated with a 74 percent increased chance of premature delivery. Total Vitamin A intake from supplements should be at least 2,500 IU but not more than 10,000 IU during pregnancy. (The World Health Organization says “It is safe to give fertile women, independent of their vitamin A status, as much as 10,000 IU daily at any time during pregnancy.”)

    Radhika MS, et al. Effects of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on maternal and child health. British Journal of Gynecology 2002 Jun;109(6):689-93.
    (The World Health Organization says “It is safe to give fertile women, independent of their vitamin A status, as much as 10,000 IU daily at any time during pregnancy.”)

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between biochemical vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy and maternal and fetal health.

    DESIGN: A cross sectional clinical study.

    SETTING: Antenatal clinic of nutrition unit of Niloufer Hospital catering for a low socio-economic population, and a private nursing home (Swapna nursing home) catering for a high socio-economic population.

    POPULATION: 736 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy belonging to low (n = 522) and high socio-economic groups (n = 214).

    METHODS: All the women were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometric and obstetric examination. Night blindness was assessed by administering the standard WHO questionnaire. Birthweight and gestational age of the infants, maternal anaemia and development of pregnancy-induced hypertension in the mother were recorded. Haemoglobin and serum retinol were estimated at the time of recruitment to the study.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum retinol levels, anaemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, birth weight and gestational age of the infant.

    RESULTS: Night blindness was observed in 2.9% of the women and subclincal vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol <20 microg/dL with no clinical signs) in 27% of the women. Moderate to severe anaemia was observed in 41.2% of the women, and 15.8% of the women developed pregnancy-induced hypertension. Sixty-one (9.4%) women delivered preterm. Univariate analysis identified a significant association between serum retinol <20 microg/dL and preterm delivery (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.96), maternal anaemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.28-2.60) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.02-2.83). After adjusting for the confounding variables (body mass index, parity, age and socio-economic status) in a multivariate analysis, the significant associations between serum retinol <20 microg/dL and preterm delivery (P = 0.02) and anaemia (P = 0.003) persisted, while that for pregnancy-induced hypertension disappeared (P = 0.71).

    CONCLUSION: The study suggests that subclinical vitamin A deficiency is a problem during the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum concentration of retinol <20 microg/dL appears to indicate a deficient status, and is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and maternal anaemia.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Vitamin C improves chances of a full-term pregnancy. Vitamin C in PreNatal Blend 2 (1200 mg)

    This study showed that pregnant women who had the most vitamin C intake (≥362 mg/day) from food and supplements had twice as much chance of a full-term pregnancy as women who consumed the least amount of vitamin C (<169 mg/day).

    Siega-Riz AM, et al. Vitamin C intake and the risk of pre-term delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology August 2003;189(2):519-525.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Ascorbic acid deficiency may lead to premature rupture of the membranes.

    STUDY DESIGN: The study included a prospective cohort of pregnant women, aged >16 years, with singleton gestations who received care at one of four prenatal clinics in central North Carolina from 1995 through 1998. Vitamin C intake pre-conceptionally and during the second trimester was examined for its association with preterm delivery and subsets of preterm labor, premature rupture of the membranes, and medical induction in 2064 women.

    RESULTS: Women who had total vitamin C intakes of <10th percentile pre-conceptionally had twice the risk of preterm delivery because of premature rupture of the membranes (relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1, 4.5). This risk was attenuated slightly for second-trimester intake (relative risk, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8, 3.5). The elevated risk of preterm premature rupture of the membranes was greatest for women with a low vitamin C intake during both time periods.

    CONCLUSION: Because diet and supplement use are modifiable behaviors, corroboration of these findings would suggest a possible intervention strategy.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Multivitamins taken in the first and second trimesters significantly improved the chances of full birth weight. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    The study showed that women who took multi-vitamin supplements during the first and second trimester showed that there was 86% better chance of full birth weight when multivitamins were taken in the first trimester and 84% better chance of full birth weight when multi-vitamin use started in the second trimester.

    Scholl TO, et al. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 Jul 15;146(2):134-41.

    Full Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by low income, urban women in the Camden Study (1985-1995, n = 1,430) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks) and infant low birth weight (< 2,500 g). Prenatal supplement use was corroborated by assay of circulating micronutrients at entry to care (no differences) and week 28 gestation (increased concentrations of folate and ferritin for supplement users). Compared with women who entered care during the first or second trimester but did not use prenatal supplements, supplement use starting in the first or second trimester was associated with approximately a twofold reduction in risk of preterm delivery. After controlling for potential confounding variables, risk of very preterm delivery (< 33 weeks' gestation) was reduced more than fourfold for first trimester users and approximately twofold when use dated from the second trimester. Infant low birth weight and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) risks were also reduced. Risk of low birth weight was reduced approximately twofold with supplement use during the first and second trimester. Diminution in risk was greater for very low birth weight infants, amounting to a sevenfold reduction in risk of very low birth weight with first trimester supplementation and a greater than sixfold reduction when supplement use started in the second trimester. Thus, in low income, urban women, use of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements may have the potential to diminish infant morbidity and mortality.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Folic acid at 1,000 mcg improves the chances of full birth weight.Folic acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1000 mcg)

    This study showed that supplementation with 400 mcg of folic acid or more per day resulted in lower homocysteine and higher birth weight as folic acid dosages increased.

    Fryer AA, et al. Quantitative, high-resolution epigenetic profiling of CpG loci identifies associations with cord blood plasma homocysteine and birth weight in humans. Epigenetics 6:1, 86-94; January 2011.

    Full Abstract:

    Supplementation with folic acid during pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects and low birth weight. It is thought that folate and other one-carbon intermediates might secure these clinical effects via DNA methylation. We examined the effects of folate on the human methylome using quantitative interrogation of 27,578 CpG loci associated with 14,496 genes at single-nucleotide resolution across 12 fetal cord blood samples. Consistent with previous studies, the majority of CpG dinucleotides located within CpG islands exhibited hypo-methylation while those outside CpG islands showed mid-high methylation. However, for the first time in human samples, unbiased analysis of methylation across samples revealed a significant correlation of methylation patterns with plasma homocysteine, LINE-1 methylation and birth weight centile. Additionally, CpG methylation significantly correlated with either birth weight or LINE-1 methylation were predominantly located in CpG islands. These data indicate that levels of folate-associated intermediates in cord blood reflect their influence and consequences for the fetal epigenome and potentially on pregnancy outcome. In these cases, their influence might be exerted during late gestation or reflect those present during the peri-conceptual period.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Iron at 30 mg daily improves the chances of full birth weight. Iron in SimplyOne Prenatal (30 mg) & PreNatal Blend (40 mg)

    In this randomized placebo-controlled study of 513 prenatal women, 30 mg of iron per day resulted in significantly higher average birth weight and significantly fewer low-birth-weight babies with 77.7% low-birth-weight babies delivered prematurely.

    Cogswell ME, et al. Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial1,2,3 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 4, 773-781, October 2003.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: The need for prophylactic iron during pregnancy is uncertain.

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that administration of a daily iron supplement from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation to initially iron-replete, nonanemic pregnant women would reduce the prevalence of anemia at 28 wk and increase birth weight.

    DESIGN: Between June 1995 and September 1998, 513 low-income pregnant women in Cleveland were enrolled in the study before 20 wk of gestation. Of these, 275 had a hemoglobin concentration ≥ 110 g/L and a ferritin concentration ≥ 20 µg/L and were randomly assigned to receive a monthly supply of capsules containing either 30 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate or placebo until 28 wk of gestation. At 28 and 38 wk of gestation, women with a ferritin concentration of 12 to < 20 µg/L or < 12 µg/L received 30 and 60 mg Fe/d, respectively, regardless of initial assignment. Almost all the women received some supplemental iron during pregnancy. We obtained infant birth weight and gestational age at delivery for 117 and 96 of the 146 and 129 women randomly assigned to receive iron and placebo, respectively.

    RESULTS: Compared with placebo, iron supplementation from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation did not significantly affect the overall prevalence of anemia or the incidence of preterm births but led to a significantly higher mean (± SD) birth weight (206 ± 565 g; P = 0.010), a significantly lower incidence of low-birth-weight infants (4% compared with 17%; P = 0.003), and a significantly lower incidence of preterm low-birth-weight infants (3% compared with 10%; P = 0.017).

    Conclusion: Prenatal prophylactic iron supplementation deserves further examination as a measure to improve birth weight and potentially reduce health care costs.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Zinc at 25 mg daily improves the chances of full birth weight. Zinc in SimplyOne Prenatal (32 mg) & PreNatal Blend (30 mg)

    This randomized placebo-controlled study of 580 pregnant women showed that women who took 25 mg of zinc per day had babies with significantly greater birth weight compared to women who took no zinc.

    Goldenberg, RL, et al. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995;274(6):463-468.

    Full Abstract:

    Objective: To evaluate whether zinc supplementation during pregnancy is associated with an increase in birth weight.

    Design: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Setting: Outpatient clinic and delivery service at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

    Patients: Five hundred eighty medically indigent but otherwise healthy African-American pregnant women with plasma zinc levels below the median at enrollment in prenatal care, randomized at 19 weeks' gestational age. Women were subdivided by the population median body mass index of 26 kg/m2 into two groups for additional analyses.

    Intervention: Women who were taking a non—zinc-containing prenatal multivitamin/mineral tablet were randomized to receive either a daily dose of 25 mg of zinc or a placebo until delivery.

    Main Outcome Measures: Birth weight, gestational age at birth, and head circumference at birth.

    Results: In all women, infants in the zinc supplement group had a significantly greater birth weight (126 g, P=.03) and head circumference (0.4 cm, P=.02) than infants in the placebo group. In women with a body mass index less than 26 kg/m2, zinc supplementation was associated with a 248-g higher infant birth weight (P=.005) and a 0.7-cm larger infant head circumference (P=.007). Plasma zinc concentrations were significantly higher in the zinc supplement group.

    Conclusions: Daily zinc supplementation in women with relatively low plasma zinc concentrations in early pregnancy is associated with greater infant birth weights and head circumferences, with the effect occurring predominantly in women with a body mass index less than 26 kg/m2.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne 50+ womenANTI-AGING: Higher folate levels were associated with improved bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    Two studies showed that higher folate intake were associated with improved bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, the group of people who are most likely to lose bone. Folic acid most likely works well for people who have less problems with bone loss, such as younger women and men.

    Mulitiple citations - please read abstracts

    Full Abstract:

    Cagnacci A, et al. Relation of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 to bone mineral density of postmenopausal women. Bone. 20-03 Dec;33(6):956-9.

    Genetic hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with skeletal abnormalities and osteoporosis. We tested whether levels of homocysteine and critical co-enzymes of homocysteine metabolism, such as vitamin B12 and folate, are related to lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA in 161 postmenopausal women. Folate but not homocysteine or vitamin B12, was lower in osteoporotic than normal women (7.2 +/- 0.9 ng/L vs 11.4 +/- 0.7 ng/L, P < 0.003). Folate, but not homocysteine or vitamin B12, was independently related to BMD (r = 0.254, P < 0.011). BMD progressively increased from the lowest to the highest folate quartile (1.025 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 vs 1.15 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, P < 0.01) even when covaried for weight, which was the only other variable related to BMD. The present data suggest a major association between folate and bone mineralization.



    Full Abstract:

    Cagnacci A, et al. Relation of folates, vitamin B12 and homocysteine to vertebral bone mineral density change in postmenopausal women. A five-year longitudinal evaluation. Bone 2008 Feb;42(2):314-20. Epub 2007 Nov 12.

    Elevation of homocysteine is associated with an increased risk for bone fractures. Whether the risk is due to homocysteine or to the reduced levels of cofactors necessary for its metabolisation, such as folates or vitamin B12, is not completely clear. In this study we wanted to determine whether in postmenopausal women, levels of folates, homocysteine or vitamin B12 are predictive of the rate of vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) change. The study was conducted at the centre for the menopause of our university hospital. Between September 2001 and March 2002, 161 healthy postmenopausal women volunteered for a cross-sectional evaluation of BMD and levels of serum folates, homocysteine and vitamin B12. Women were recalled for a second evaluation of vertebral BMD after about 5 years. Women having used anti-resorptive therapies for more than 1 year were excluded. The analysis was possible in 117 postmenopausal women. The annual rate of vertebral BMD change was independently related to levels of folates (coefficient of regression (CR): 2.040; 95%CI: 0.483, 3.596; p=0.011), and initial BMD values (CR: -0.060; 95%CI: -0.117, -0.003; p=0.040). No significant relation was found between the change of vertebral BMD and homocysteine or vitamin B12. BMD values at the first (r=0.225; p=0.016) and the second (r=0.206; p=0.027) evaluation were related to levels of folates, but not of homocysteine or of vitamin B12. These data suggest an important role for folates deficiency in the vertebral BMD decline of postmenopausal women.

    New!Read the Abstracts
  • SimplyOne 50+ MenANTI-AGING: Folic Acid improves memory. All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    This three-year double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 818 men and women, aged 50 to 70 years showed that, compared to placebo, those who took an 800 mcg folic acid supplement had improvements in three areas that commonly worsen with age, including improved memory (13 percent better memory scores), improved information processing (about 8 percent better), and improved nervous system processing (6 percent better sensorimotor speed).

    Durga J, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 20;369(9557):208-16.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Low folate and raised homocysteine concentrations in blood are associated with poor cognitive performance in the general population. As part of the FACIT trial to assess the effect of folic acid on markers of atherosclerosis in men and women aged 50-70 years with raised plasma total homocysteine and normal serum vitamin B12 at screening, we report here the findings for the secondary endpoint: the effect of folic acid supplementation on cognitive performance.

    METHODS: Our randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study took place between November, 1999, and December, 2004, in the Netherlands. We randomly assigned 818 participants 800 mug daily oral folic acid or placebo for 3 years. The effect on cognitive performance was measured as the difference between the two groups in the 3-year change in performance for memory, sensorimotor speed, complex speed, information processing speed, and word fluency. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov with trial number NCT00110604.

    FINDINGS: Serum folate concentrations increased by 576% (95% CI 539 to 614) and plasma total homocysteine concentrations decreased by 26% (24 to 28) in participants taking folic acid compared with those taking placebo. The 3-year change in memory (difference in Z scores 0.132, 95% CI 0.032 to 0.233), information processing speed (0.087, 0.016 to 0.158) and sensorimotor speed (0.064, -0.001 to 0.129) were significantly better in the folic acid group than in the placebo group.

    INTERPRETATION: Folic acid supplementation for 3 years significantly improved domains of cognitive function that tend to decline with age.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne 50+ MenANTI-AGING: Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Improve Memory. SuperNutrition's Simply One Men, Simply One Men 50+, Simply One Women 50+, Simply One Prenatal, Prenatal Blend, Men's Blend, Women's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Menopause Multiple, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack contain these antioxidant vitamins and minerals in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Eight years of supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals helped people aged 45 to 60 years old maintain their memories, with significantly improved memory even six years after the end of the supplementation period.

    Kesse-Guyot E, et al.French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011 Sep;94(3):892-9. Read Abstract for full citation.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Antioxidant properties of some vitamins and trace elements may help to prevent cognitive decline.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to estimate the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on the cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study 6 y after the end of the trial.

    DESIGN: This study included 4447 French participants aged 45-60 y who were enrolled in the SU.VI.MAX study (1994-2002), which was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. From 1994 to 2002, participants received daily vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 μg), and zinc (20 mg) in combination or as a placebo. In 2007-2009, the cognitive performance of participants was assessed with 4 neuropsychological tests (6 tasks). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to identify cognitive-function summary scores. Associations between antioxidant supplementation and cognitive functions, in the full sample and by subgroups, were estimated through ANOVA and expressed as mean differences and 95% CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics.

    RESULTS: Subjects receiving active antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.20). PCA indicated 2 factors that were interpreted as showing verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory was improved by antioxidant supplementation only in subjects who were nonsmokers or who had low serum vitamin C concentrations at baseline.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalANTI-AGING: Magnesium improves blood circulation and blood vessel health, if you have enough potency. SuperNutrition Anti-Aging Potency Men's, Anti-Aging Potency Women's and Opti-Energy Pack multivitamins give you 700 mg of magnesium in a daily dose.
    Shechter M, et al. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2000 Nov 7; 102(19):2353-8.

    Magnesium, at a dose of 730 mg per day, was shown in this study to cause a 12 percent improvement in the normal dilation response of arteries. Magnesium supplementation is also known to decrease artery wall dysfunction, resulting in better blood circulation.

    Because of better blood flow, more blood supply reaches heart muscles and the muscles of both the upper and lower extremities.

    As a result of this, there is a noticeable improvement in overall exercise and physical stress tolerance.

    SuperNutrition Anti-Aging Potency Men's, Anti-Aging Potency Women's and Opti-Energy Pack multivitamins give you 700 mg of magnesium in a daily dose.

    Click here to read the full text of the study.

    Full Abstract:

    Background: Magnesium blocks many of the physiological actions of calcium. Nevertheless, the impact of magnesium supplementation on endothelial function and exercise tolerance in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients has not been assessed.

    Methods and Results: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 stable CAD patients (41 men and 9 women, mean 6±SD age 67±11 years, age range 42 to 82 years) were randomized to receive either magnesium (n=25) (30 mmol/d Magnosolv-Granulat; Asta Medica Company, Inc) or placebo (n=25) for 6 months. Before and after 6 months, endotheliumdependent brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent NTG-mediated vasodilation were assessed with high-resolution (10-MHz) ultrasound. Exercise stress testing was performed with use of the Bruce protocol. Intracellular magnesium concentrations ([Mg2+]i) were assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (EXA) (normal mean6SD values 37.9±4.0 mEq/L). The magnesium therapy significantly increased postintervention ([Mg2+]i versus placebo (36.2±5.0 versus 32.7±2.7 mEq/L, P<0.02). There was a significant correlation in the total population between baseline [Mg2+]i and baseline FMD (r=0.48,P<0.01). The magnesium intervention resulted in a significant improvement in postintervention FMD (15.5±12.0%,P=0.02 compared with baseline), which was not evident with placebo (4.4±2.5%,P=0.78 compared with baseline). There was better exercise tolerance (9.3±2.0 versus 7.3±3.1 minutes, P=0.05) and less ischemic ST-segment changes (4 versus 10 patients, P=0.05) in the magnesium versus placebo groups, respectively.

    Conclusions: Oral magnesium therapy in CAD patients is associated with significant improvement in brachial artery endothelial function and exercise tolerance, suggesting a potential mechanism by which magnesium could beneficially alter outcomes in CAD patients. (Circulation. 2000;102:2353-2358.)

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalANTI-AGING: This document details the twelve nutrients in SuperNutrition formulas that improve bone density and bone strength, even reversing age-related bone loss, when you have enough potency. The following SuperNutrition products provide eleven or twelve of these nutrients in potencies equal to or superior to the potencies in the studies that confirm their effects on improving bone health. Women’s Blend, PreNatal Blend, Menopause Multiple, AntiAging Women, AntiAging Men, Opti-Energy Pack, Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack, SuperImmune Multivitamin, Calcium Blend.

    Full Abstract:

    New!Read the Document
  • AntiAging WomenANTI-AGING: A two-year placebo-controlled study showed that calcium supplementation reversed age-related bone loss in postmenopausal women when they took enough supplemental calcium, 1,000 mg per day. SuperNutrition AntiAging Potency Women, Women’s Blend, Menopause Multiple, Opti-Energy Pack, Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack and Calcium Blend all give you 1,000 mg or more of calcium per day.
    Storm D, et al. Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol Metab, 83(11):3817-25 1998 Nov.

    The authors said, ”The precise amount of calcium necessary to preserve bone mineral density in elderly women requires further studies, although in this study, at least 1,000 mg of supplemental calcium was adequate prophylaxis against femoral bone loss.”

    1. The placebo group of women lost 3% of their bone mineral density when they only got their calcium from food, an average of 683 mg per day;
    2. A second group lost less of their bone mineral density, 1.5%, when they added 345 mg of calcium to their diet from four glasses of milk for a total intake of 1,028 mg per day of calcium, but they still lost bone because 1,028 mg was not enough calcium;
    3. A third group suffered no bone loss, but gained 3% more total bone mineral density by adding 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate per day to their dietary calcium to equal 1,633 mg of total calcium intake.

    Click here to read the full study.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne MenFOR MEN: Nutrients in SuperNutrition Formulas For Men Improve Mental Functioning and Mental Health.
    Men's Blend, Opti-Energy Pack, Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack, SuperImmune Multivitamin and AntiAging Potency Men all have higher, more optimal potencies than the multivitamin in this study.

    This multi-vitamin/mineral supplement improved mental health, mental energy, and mental function and reduced feelings of stress in men 30 – 55 years old.

    Kennedy David O, et al. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (2010) 211(1):55-68 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men provide all the nutrients contained in the multivitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men, except vitamin C, are superior and more optimal. SuperNutrition Men's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in these SuperNutrition formulas are superior and more optimal.


    Full Abstract:

    Rationale
    A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults.

    Objectives
    The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment.

    Methods
    Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed.

    Results
    Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery.

    Conclusions
    Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne 50+ MenFOR MEN: Nutrients that support better memory for older men.

    This 2-year study of people aged 70 years and older who had mild memory problems showed that taking 800 mcg of folic acid, 500 mcg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6 daily helped people maintain their ability to plan and carry out a complex mental task; in people with initially elevated levels of homocysteine (an amino acid that can be elevated by B vitamin deficiency), the B vitamin supplement also helped people maintain memory and thinking ability.

    de Jager CA, et al. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2012 Jul;27(6):592-600.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men 50+ contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 225 mcg of vitamin B12, and 40 mg of vitamin B6. SuperNutrition Opti-Energy Pack contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12, and 250 mg of vitamin B6. SuperNutrition Super Immune Multivitamin contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12, and 200 mg of vitamin B6.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In the first report on the VITACOG trial, we showed that homocysteine-lowering treatment with B vitamins slows the rate of brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we report the effect of B vitamins on cognitive and clinical decline (secondary outcomes) in the same study.

    METHODS: This was a double-blind, single-centre study, which included participants with MCI, aged ≥70 y, randomly assigned to receive a daily dose of 0.8 mg folic acid, 0.5 mg vitamin B(12) and 20 mg vitamin B(6) (133 participants) or placebo (133 participants) for 2 y. Changes in cognitive or clinical function were analysed by generalized linear models or mixed-effects models.

    RESULTS: The mean plasma total homocysteine was 30% lower in those treated with B vitamins relative to placebo. B vitamins stabilized executive function (CLOX) relative to placebo (P = 0.015). There was significant benefit of B-vitamin treatment among participants with baseline homocysteine above the median (11.3 µmol/L) in global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination, P < 0.001), episodic memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall, P = 0.001) and semantic memory (category fluency, P = 0.037). Clinical benefit occurred in the B-vitamin group for those in the upper quartile of homocysteine at baseline in global clinical dementia rating score (P = 0.02) and IQCODE score (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: In this small intervention trial, B vitamins appear to slow cognitive and clinical decline in people with MCI, in particular in those with elevated homocysteine. Further trials are needed to see if this treatment will slow or prevent conversion from MCI to dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFOR KIDS: Multivitamins given daily to children improve accuracy in attention-based tasks, an indicator of healthy brain function. Perfect Kids, Immune Kids

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation of eighty-one children, aged 8 to 14 concluded that a low potency multi-vitamin/mineral formula improved accuracy in attention-based tasks, indicating improved brain function. SuperNutrition Perfect Kids provides all the vitamins and minerals in the multivitamin in the study, but in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Haskell CF, et al. Cognitive and mood effects in healthy children during 12 weeks' supplementation with multi-vitamin/minerals. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008 Nov;100(5):1086-96. Epub 2008 May 29.

    SuperNutrition Perfect Kids provides all the vitamins and minerals in the multivitamin in the study, but in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Full Abstract:

    Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are essential for optimal neural functioning. A high proportion of individuals, including children, suffer from deficiencies in one or more vitamins or minerals. This study investigated whether daily supplementation with vitamins/minerals could modulate cognitive performance and mood in healthy children. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation, eighty-one healthy children aged from 8 to 14 years underwent laboratory assessments of their cognitive performance and mood pre-dose and at 1 and 3 h post-dose on the first and last days of 12 weeks' supplementation with a commercially available vitamins/mineral product (Pharmaton Kiddi). Interim assessments were also completed at home after 4 and 8 weeks at 3 h post-dose. Each assessment comprised completion of a cognitive battery, delivered over the Internet, which included tasks assessing mood and the speed and accuracy of attention and aspects of memory (secondary, semantic and spatial working memory). The vitamin/mineral group performed more accurately on two attention tasks: 'Arrows' choice reaction time task at 4 and 8 weeks; 'Arrow Flankers' choice reaction time task at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A single task outcome (Picture Recognition errors) evinced significant decrements at 12 weeks. Mood was not modulated in any interpretable manner. Whilst it is possible that the significant improvements following treatment were due to non-significant numerical differences in performance at baseline, these results would seem to suggest that vitamin/mineral supplementation has the potential to improve brain function in healthy children. This proposition requires further investigation.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFOR KIDS: Zinc at 20mg improved the speed of visual memory, word recognition and sustained attention in 7th graders. Perfect Kids, Immune Kids

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 209 7th-graders found that 20 mg of daily zinc improved hand-to-eye coordination, attention, memory and problem-solving, where 10 mg or no zinc had no effect.

    Zinc affects cognition and psychosocial function of middle-school children. FASEB J. 2005;19:A973.(Abstr.)

    Perfect Kids Dosing and Age

    • For 4 - 6 year olds 1 tablet with 5 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 7 - 8 year olds 2 tablets with 10 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 9 - 11 year olds 3 tablets with 15 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 12 - 13 year old 4 tablets with 20 mg of zinc makes them smarter

    Full Abstract

    This placebo-controlled study of 209 7th graders compared daily zinc supplementation of 20 mg, 10 mg and no zinc (the placebo group). It showed that 20 mg of daily zinc decreased reaction time by 12% vs 6% in the placebo (no zinc) group in a visual memory task; increased “percent correct” by 9% vs 3% in the placebo group on a word recognition task; and increased the percent of “target detections” by 6% vs 1% in the placebo group in a sustained attention (vigilance) task. Zinc-treated girls had 10% less conduct problems than placebo girls.
    New!Read the Abstract
Order online now.