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SuperNutrition
Optimal Potencies For Best Health
Since 1977

Scientific References

  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) reduced PMS significantly at 100 mg and 200 mg per day. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in SimplyOne Women (100mg) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (200mg)

    This retrospective study of 630 women show ed that while 100 mg to 150 mg of supplemental vitamin B6 reduced PMS in about 66% of the women, 160 mg to 200 mg of Vitamin B6 reduced PMS in about 79% of the women.

    Brush MG, and associates. Pyridoxine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a retrospective survey in 630 patients. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1988 Nov;42(11):448-52.

    Full Abstract:

    We present a survey summarizing the retrospective reports of the therapeutic effect of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in 630 women suffering from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) who attended a PMS clinic during the period 1976-1983. The daily doses of pyridoxine hydrochloride varied from 40 to 100 mg early in the study and from 120 to 200 mg in the later period of the investigations. The response to treatment was recorded as good (no significant residual complaints) in 40 per cent or more of patients taking 100-150 mg pyridoxine daily and in 60 per cent of patients treated with 160-200 mg daily. Together with partial response (useful benefit but still some significant complaints), the positive effect of the treatment increased to 65-68 per cent and 70-88 per cent respectively. No symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were reported.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin D at a medium intake of 706 IU per day was associated with a 41 percent more decrease in PMS than 112 IU per day. Vitamin D in SimplyOne Women (3000IU) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (2500IU)

    Looking at the vitamin D intake of Women in the Nurses’ Health Study II, this study concluded that women with a higher median vitamin D intake of 706 IU per day had significantly less (or no) PMS than subjects who got a median of the least amount of vitamin D, 112 IU per day.

     Bertone-Johnson, ER, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005 Jun 13;165(11):1246-52.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most common disorders of premenopausal women. Studies suggest that blood calcium and vitamin D levels are lower in women with PMS and that calcium supplementation may reduce symptom severity, but it is unknown whether these nutrients may prevent the initial development of PMS.

    METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Participants were a subset of women aged 27 to 44 years and free from PMS at baseline in 1991, including 1057 women who developed PMS over 10 years of follow-up and 1968 women reporting no diagnosis of PMS and no or minimal menstrual symptoms. Intake of calcium and vitamin D was measured in 1991, 1995, and 1999 by a food frequency questionnaire.

    RESULTS: After adjustment for age, parity, smoking status, and other risk factors, women in the highest quintile of total vitamin D intake (median, 706 IU/d) had a relative risk of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.86) compared with those in the lowest quintile (median, 112 IU/d) (P = .01 for trend). The intake of calcium from food sources was also inversely related to PMS; compared with women with a low intake (median, 529 mg/d), participants with the highest intake (median, 1283 mg/d) had a relative risk of 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.97) (P = .02 for trend). The intake of skim or low-fat milk was also associated with a lower risk (P<.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of PMS. Large-scale clinical trials addressing this issue are warranted. Given that calcium and vitamin D may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis and some cancers, clinicians may consider recommending these nutrients even for younger women.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Chaste tree berry (vitex) extract has been shown to reduce PMS.Chaste berry extract in SimplyOne Women (30mg) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (100mg)

    This randomized placebo-controlled 3-month study of premenstrual syndrome in 170 women (average age 36) showed that 20 mg of chaste berry extract reduced PMS about 28% better than placebo. The women noted significant reductions in irritability, mood disturbances, anger, headache, and breast fullness compared to the placebo group.

    Schellenberg R, and associates. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus ifruit extract: prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. British Medical Journal 2001 Jan 20;322:134-137.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of agnus castus fruit (Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440) with placebo for women with the premenstrual syndrome.

    DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles.

    SETTING: General medicine community clinics. Participants: 178 women were screened and 170 were evaluated (active 86; placebo 84). Mean age was 36 years, mean cycle length was 28 days, mean duration of menses was 4.5 days.

    INTERVENTIONS: Agnus castus (dry extract tablets) one tablet daily or matching placebo, given for three consecutive cycles.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main efficacy variable: change from baseline to end point (end of third cycle) in women's self assessment of irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, breast fullness, and other menstrual symptoms including bloating. Secondary efficacy variables: changes in clinical global impression (severity of condition, global improvement, and risk or benefit) and responder rate (50% reduction in symptoms).

    RESULTS: Improvement in the main variable was greater in the active group compared with placebo group (P<0.001). Analysis of the secondary variables showed significant (P<0.001) superiority of active treatment in each of the three global impression items. Responder rates were 52% and 24% for active and placebo, respectively. Seven women reported mild adverse events (four active; three placebo), none of which caused discontinuation of treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dry extract of agnus castus fruit is an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Calcium carbonate at 1,000 mg per day reduced PMS.Calcium carbonate in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (1000 mg–carbonate & citrate)

    This randomized placebo-controlled study of 78 women showed a 58 percent better reduction in PMS with 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate than with placebo during the luteal and menstrual phases of the reproductive cycle. Both water retention and pain scores were significantly reduced by calcium carbonate supplementation.

    Thys-Jacobs S, and associates. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome a randomized crossover trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1989;4(3):183-9.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of calcium supplementation in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

    DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover trial.

    SETTING: Outpatient medical clinic of a large city hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight women were initially screened. Trial selection was based on a history of recurrent PMS symptoms and on the results of a prospective assessment of daily symptom scores. Only women with symptom scores during the late luteal phase that were at least 50% greater than those during the intermenstrual phase were selected. Thirty-three women completed the trial.

    INTERVENTION: A preliminary evaluation included physical examination, routine laboratory tests, dietary assessment, and psychiatric evaluation. Each participant received six months of treatment involving three months of daily calcium supplementation (1,000 mg of calcium carbonate) and three months of placebo.

    MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy was assessed prospectively by changes in daily symptom scores over a six-month period and retrospectively by an overall global assessment. Multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance on symptom ratings derived from daily PMS symptom scores demonstrated a reduction in symptoms on calcium treatment during both the luteal (p = 0.011) and the menstrual phases (p = 0.032) of the reproductive cycle. Calcium supplementation had no effect during the intermenstrual phase. Retrospective assessment of overall symptoms confirmed this reduction: 73% of the women reported fewer symptoms during the treatment phase on calcium, 15% preferred placebo, and 12% had no clear preference. Three premenstrual factors (negative affect [p = 0.045]; water retention [p = 0.003]; pain [p = 0.036]) and one menstrual factor (pain [p = 0.02]) were significantly alleviated by calcium.

    CONCLUSION: Calcium supplementation is a simple and effective treatment for premenstrual syndrome, but further studies will be needed to determine its precise role in PMS.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Magnesium at 200 and 360 mg per day reduced PMS.Magnesium in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (600 mg)

    Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showed that magnesium at 360 mg per day reduced headaches and pain, and at 200 mg reduced weight gain, fluid retention, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness and abdominal bloating.

    Facchinetti F, and associates. Magnesium prophylaxsis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991 May;31(5):298-301. Walker AF, and associates. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. Journal of Womens Health 1998 Nov;7(9):1157-65.

    Full Abstract:

    We investigated the effect of a daily supplement of 200 mg of magnesium (as MgO) for two menstrual cycles on the severity of premenstrual symptoms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. A daily supplement of 200 mg of Mg (as MgO) or placebo was administered for two menstrual cycles to each volunteer, who kept a daily record of her symptoms, using a 4-point scale in a menstrual diary of 22 items. Symptoms were grouped into six categories: PMS-A (anxiety), PMS-C (craving), PMS-D (depression), PMS-H (hydration), PMS-O (other), and PMS-T (total overall symptoms). Urinary Mg output/24 hours was estimated from spot samples using the Mg/creatinine ratio. Analysis of variance for 38 women showed no effect of Mg supplementation compared with placebo in any category in the first month of supplementation. In the second month there was a greater reduction (p = 0.009) of symptoms of PMS-H (weight gain, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness, abdominal bloating) with Mg supplementation compared with placebo. Compliance to supplementation was confirmed by the greater mean estimated 24-hour urinary output of Mg (p = 0.013) during Mg supplementation (100.8 mg) compared with placebo (74.1 mg). A daily supplement of 200 mg of Mg (as MgO) reduced mild premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention in the second cycle of administration.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin E was shown to reduce PMS in 15 categories of PMS. Vitamin E in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (400 IU)

    This randomized, placebo-controlled study confirmed a previous study by the same author, showing that with 400 IU of natural form vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) "all major categories of PMS symptoms are improved with supplementation of 400 IU of vitamin E daily." In all 15 categories of symptoms, vitamin E supplemented women reported 27-42% reduction in severity.

    London RS, and associates. Efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1987 Jun;32(6):4004-4.

    Full Abstract:

    In a preliminary study, alpha-tocopherol supplementation was effective in reducing specific symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). To confirm these findings, we performed a randomized, double-blind study using d,alpha-tocopherol and placebo in a carefully screened population of women with PMS. Standardized PMS questionnaires were administered in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle to all subjects, before and after daily treatment with 400 IU d,alpha-tocopherol or placebo for three cycles. Of the 46 subjects enrolled, 41 completed the clinical trial. A significant improvement in certain affective and physical symptoms was noted in subjects treated with d,alpha-tocopherol.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin D at higher doses reduced the rate of bone fractures.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Women (3,000IU), Women’s Blend (1,000IU), Simply One Men (3,000IU), SuperNutrition Menopause Multiple (1,000IU), SuperNutrition Opti-Energy Pack (1,000IU), SuperNutrition Calcium Blend (1,000IU)

    A major review of scientific studies since 1960 found that 700-800 IU of supplemental vitamin D reduced bone fractures 23% to 26%, while 400 IU was not sufficient for fracture prevention.

    Bischoff-Ferrari H, and associates. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64.

    Full Abstract:

    CONTEXT: The role and dose of oral vitamin D supplementation in nonvertebral fracture prevention have not been well established.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in preventing hip and nonvertebral fractures in older persons.

    DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of English and non-English articles using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2005), and EMBASE (1991-2005). Additional studies were identified by contacting clinical experts and searching bibliographies and abstracts presented at the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (1995-2004). Search terms included randomized controlled trial (RCT), controlled clinical trial, random allocation, double-blind method, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fractures, humans, elderly, falls, and bone density.

    STUDY SELECTION: Only double-blind RCTs of oral vitamin D supplementation (cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol) with or without calcium supplementation vs calcium supplementation or placebo in older persons (> or =60 years) that examined hip or nonvertebral fractures were included.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Independent extraction of articles by 2 authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators.

    DATA SYNTHESIS: All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Five RCTs for hip fracture (n = 9294) and 7 RCTs for nonvertebral fracture risk (n = 9820) met our inclusion criteria. All trials used cholecalciferol. Heterogeneity among studies for both hip and nonvertebral fracture prevention was observed, which disappeared after pooling RCTs with low-dose (400 IU/d) and higher-dose vitamin D (700-800 IU/d), separately. A vitamin D dose of 700 to 800 IU/d reduced the relative risk (RR) of hip fracture by 26% (3 RCTs with 5572 persons; pooled RR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.88) and any nonvertebral fracture by 23% (5 RCTs with 6098 persons; pooled RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87) vs calcium or placebo. No significant benefit was observed for RCTs with 400 IU/d vitamin D (2 RCTs with 3722 persons; pooled RR for hip fracture, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88-1.50; and pooled RR for any nonvertebral fracture, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.24).

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin D supplementation between 700 to 800 IU/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and any nonvertebral fractures in ambulatory or institutionalized elderly persons. An oral vitamin D dose of 400 IU/d is not sufficient for fracture prevention.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin K1 supplementation was associated with improved bone mineral density. ALL SuperNutrition multivitamins, except Perfect Kids, have 80mcg or more of vitamin K1 in a daily dose.Vitamin K1 in Calcium Blend (80 mcg)

    80 mcg/day of vitamin K1 improved carboxylated osteocalcin in postmenopausal women. This measure correlates with improved bone mineral density.

    Schaafsma A, and associates. Vitamin D3 and vitamin K1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities: effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54:626.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60 -y-old postmenopausal Dutch women.

    DESIGN: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n=96) and low (T-score< or =-1; n=45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with 350-400 IU vitamin D(3), 80 microg vitamins K(1), vitamins K(1)+D(3), or placebo for 1 y. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and percentage carboxylated osteocalcin (%carbOC) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: Baseline %carbOC of the entire study population was positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Correspondingly, women with low BMD had lower %carbOC at baseline than women with normal BMD but this difference disappeared after 1 y of supplementation with vitamin K(1) ((mean+/-s.d.) 68+/-11% (95% CI, 64. 5-71.2%) vs 72+/-6% (95% CI, 70.1-72.9%), respectively). One year of supplementation with vitamin D(3) showed maximum increases in 25(OH)D of 33+/-29% (95% CI, 24.8-41.8%) and 68+/-58% (95% CI, 50.1-84.6%) in women with normal and low BMD, respectively. During winter, however, a 29% decline in maximum 25(OH)D levels was not prevented in women with low BMD.

    CONCLUSION: Daily supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with >400 IU vitamin D(3) is indicated to prevent a winter decline in 25(OH)D and to control serum parathyroid hormone levels. Daily supplementation with 80 microg vitamin K(1) seems to be necessary to reach premenopausal %carbOC levels. A stimulatory effect of calcium and/or vitamin D on %carbOC cannot be excluded.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Boron improved calcium and magnesium retention in the body and improved levels of bone-building hormones. All SuperNutrition Multivitamins for adults and Calcium Blend contain 3 mg of boron.

    Boron, at 3 mg/day, has been shown to improve calcium retention in the body.

    Nielsen FH, and associates. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB Journal. 1987 Nov;1(5):394-7.

    Full Abstract:

    A study was done to examine the effects of aluminum, magnesium, and boron on major mineral metabolism in postmenopausal women. This communication describes some of the effects of dietary boron on 12 women between the ages of 48 and 82 housed in a metabolic unit. A boron supplement of 3 mg/day markedly affected several indices of mineral metabolism of seven women consuming a low-magnesium diet and five women consuming a diet adequate in magnesium; the women had consumed a conventional diet supplying about 0.25 mg boron/day for 119 days. Boron supplementation markedly reduced the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium; the depression seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Boron supplementation depressed the urinary excretion of phosphorus by the low-magnesium, but not by the adequate-magnesium, women. Boron supplementation markedly elevated the serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone; the elevation seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Neither high dietary aluminum (1000 mg/day) nor an interaction between boron and aluminum affected the variables presented. The findings suggest that supplementation of a low-boron diet with an amount of boron commonly found in diets high in fruits and vegetables induces changes in postmenopausal women consistent with the prevention of calcium loss and bone demineralization.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Iron intake was associated with greater bone density in 5 bone types. Daily doses of iron & calcium in Calcium Blend (40mg iron, 1,250mg calcium), Super Immune Multivitamin (24mg iron, 1,000mg calcium), Opti-Energy Pack (40mg iron, 1,250mg calcium).

    Iron intake at more than 20 mg/day when calcium intake was between 800 to 1200 mg/day was associated with greater bone mineral density in several types of bone in healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women. The authors noted that iron was necessary for healthy bone collagen, which gives bone its flexibility and ability to absorb impact with reduced risk of fracture.

    Harris MM, and associates. Dietary iron is associated with bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. Journal of Nutrition 133;3598-3602, 2003.

    Full Abstract:

    Healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women (n = 242; ages 40-66 y) were included in the Bone, Estrogen, and Strength Training (BEST) Study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at five sites (lumbar spine L2-L4, trochanter, femur neck, Ward's triangle and total body) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean nutrient intakes were assessed using a 3-d diet record. Regression models were calculated using each BMD site as the dependent variable and iron as the independent variable. Covariates included in the models were years past menopause, fat-free mass, fat mass, use of hormone replacement therapy, total energy intake and dietary intake of protein and calcium. Using linear models, iron was associated with greater BMD at all sites (P < or = 0.01), even after adjusting for protein and/or calcium. Increasing levels of iron intake (>20 mg) were associated with greater BMD at several bone sites among women with a mean calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/d. Elevated iron intake was not associated with greater BMD among women with higher (>1200 mg/d) or lower calcium intakes (<800 mg/d). Dietary iron may be a more important factor in bone mineralization than originally thought and, its combined effect with calcium on BMD warrants exploration in future studies.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin C supplementation increased spinal bone density.Daily dose of vitamin C in Women’s Blend (1000 mg), PreNatal Blend (1000 mg), Calcium Blend (1000 mg), Opti-Energy Pack (1200 mg), Menopause Multiple (1500 mg), Super Immune Multivitamin (1500 mg).

    Postmenopausal women who took 1,000 mg/day over a three-year time period had 5 percent greater spinal bone density than women who took 500 mg.

    Morton DJ, and associates. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2001, 16:135-140.

    Full Abstract:

    Vitamin C is known to stimulate procollagen, enhance collagen synthesis, and stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for osteoblast formation. Studies of dietary vitamin C intake and the relation with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conflicting, probably because of the well-known limitations of dietary nutrient assessment questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent relation of daily vitamin C supplement use with BMD in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women. Subjects were 994 women from a community-based cohort of whom 277 women were regular vitamin C supplement users. Vitamin C supplement use was validated. Daily vitamin C supplement intake ranged from 100 to 5,000 mg; the mean daily dose was 745 mg. Average duration of use was 12.4 years; 85% had taken vitamin C supplements for more than 3 years. BMD levels were measured at the ultradistal and midshaft radii, hip, and lumbar spine. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and total calcium intake, vitamin C users had BMD levels approximately 3% higher at the midshaft radius, femoral neck, and total hip (p < 0.05). In a fully adjusted model, significant differences remained at the femoral neck (p < 0.02) and marginal significance was observed at the total hip (p < 0.06). Women taking both estrogen and vitamin C had significantly higher BMD levels at all sites. Among current estrogen users, those also taking vitamin C had higher BMD levels at all sites, with marginal significance achieved at the ultradistal radius (p < 0.07), femoral neck (p < 0.07), and total hip (p < 0.09). Women who took vitamin C plus calcium and estrogen had the highest BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.001), total hip (p = 0.05), ultradistal radius (p = 0.02), and lumbar spine. Vitamin C supplement use appears to have a beneficial effect on levels of BMD, especially among postmenopausal women using concurrent estrogen therapy and calcium supplements.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Magnesium increased the density of a major component of bone.Magnesium in Women’s Blend (600 mg), Menopause Multiple (600 mg), Super Immune Multivitamin (600 mg), Opti-Energy Pack (700 mg)

    Magnesium dosing between 250 mg and 750 mg increased trabecular bone density between 1 and 8 percent for a majority of postmenopausal women in this 2-year study.

    Stendig-Lindberg G, and associates. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnesium Research. 1993 Jun;6(2):155-63.

    Full Abstract:

    Since magnesium regulates calcium transport, and magnesium replacement in magnesium-deficient postmenopausal patients resulted in unexpected improvement in documented osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of magnesium treatment on trabecular bone density in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thirty-one postmenopausal patients (mean age +/- SD = 57.6 +/- 10.6 years), consecutively admitted to the Back Rehabilitation Unit with musculoskeletal pain of non-malignant origin and bone density values of < or = 1.19 g/cm3 (measured by Compton Bone Densitometer), received two to six tablets daily of 125 mg each of magnesium hydroxide (Magnesium Magma USP/; 'Mazor', Israel) for 6 months and two tablets for another 18 months in a 2 year, open, controlled therapeutic trial. Twenty-three symptom-free postmenopausal women (mean +/- SD = 61.2 +/- 6.2 years) whose bone density was concurrently assessed at the same laboratory and who were found to have osteoporosis but refused treatment, served as controls. No new fractures occurred. Twenty-two patients (71 per cent) responded by a 1-8 per cent rise of bone density. The mean bone density of all treated patients increased significantly after 1 year (P < 0.02) and remained unchanged after 2 years (P > 0.05). The mean bone density of the responders increased significantly both after one year (P < 0.001) and after 2 years (P < 0.02), while in untreated controls, the mean bone density decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The disparity between the initial mean bone density and bone density after one year in all osteoporotic patients and in the responders differed significantly from that of the controls (both P < 0.001).

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Calcium, zinc, manganese and copper, taken together, increased bone density.Women’s Blend, Menopause Multiple, Super Immune Multivitamin , Opti-Energy Pack, PreNatal Blend and Calcium Blend all contain these amounts in a daily dose.

    Calcium (1,000 mg) with zinc (15 mg), manganese (5 mg) and copper (2.5 mg) increased bone density 5.01 percent better than placebo.

    Strause L, and associates. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. Journal of Nutrition 1994 Jul;124(7):1060-4.

    Full Abstract:

    The effects of calcium supplementation (as calcium citrate malate, 1000 mg elemental Ca/d) with and without the addition of zinc (15.0 mg/d), manganese (5.0 mg/d) and copper (2.5 mg/d) on spinal bone loss (L2-L4 vertebrae) was evaluated in healthy older postmenopausal women (n = 59, mean age 66 y) in a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Changes (mean +/- SEM) in bone density were -3.53 +/- 1.24% (placebo), -1.89 +/- 1.40% (trace minerals only), -1.25 +/- 1.46% (calcium only) and 1.48 +/- 1.40% (calcium plus trace minerals). Bone loss relative to base-line value was significant (P = 0.0061) in the placebo group but not in the groups receiving trace minerals alone, calcium alone, or calcium plus trace minerals. The only significant group difference occurred between the placebo group and the group receiving calcium plus trace minerals (P = 0.0099). These data suggest that bone loss in calcium-supplemented, older postmenopausal women can be further arrested by concomitant increases in trace mineral intake.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (3,000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (1000 IU)

    This study said that previous vitamin D recommendations for pregnancy, 200 to 400 IU/day were too conservative and recommended considering the need for higher doses.

    Dror DK, Allen LH. Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: biology, outcomes, and interventions. Nutrition Reviews 2010 Aug;68(8):465-77. Dror DK Allen LH. USDA ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, California, 95616, USA. dkdror@ucdavis.edu

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (vitD) deficiency during pregnancy is a serious public health issue, affecting mother and fetus. Establishing optimal vitD requirements of pregnant women is vital in preventing vitD deficiency and its health-associated comorbidities.
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of high dose vitD supplementation in decreasing pregnancy comorbidity risks.
    DESIGN/METHODS: Following their consent, pregnant women 12-16 wks' gestation were randomized into 1 of 3 tx grps stratified by race: 400, 2000 or 4000 IU vitD3/day until delivery. Women were evaluated for safety (Abstr#750939), efficacy and effectiveness with monthly 25(OH)D; 1,25(OH)2D; serum Ca, Cr, phos, and urinary Ca/Cr levels, all measured using standardized methodology. Comorbidities of pregnancy (preeclampsia, gest diabetes, any infection, preterm labor (PTL)/preterm birth (PTB)<37 wks GA) were recorded prospectively for each subject. Investigators and health team were blinded to tx grp.
    RESULTS: Of the 494 women who enrolled in the study, 350 women continued until delivery: 98 African American (AA), 137 Hispanic (Hisp) and 115 Caucasian (Cauc) women; with 111 controls, 122 in 2000 IU and 117 in 4000 IU groups. There were no differences in baseline vitD status between dose groups. The mean 25(OH)D by dose group at delivery, as chronic level, and 1-month before delivery were significantly different between control and 2000, control and 4000, and 2000 vs. 4000 (p<0.0001). 25(OH)D had a direct influence on 1,25(OH)2D levels throughout pregnancy (p<0.0001) with 25(OH)D of 40 ng/mL required to obtain maximum 1,25(OH)2D production. In bivariate analyses controlling for race, PTL/PTB and infection were inversely related to 25(OH)D and were lowest in the 4000 IU grp (p<0.0001). In logistic regression, comparing 400 vs. 4000 IU and controlling for race, the risk of comorbidities were 0.50 (CI 0.27-0.95; p=0.03) among those in the 4000 IU grp. Using least sq means, when adjusting for race, 25(OH)D of women with comorbidities was 33.4 ng/mL compared to 39.0 ng/mL in those women without (p<0.008).
    CONCLUSIONS: VitD sufficiency was strongly associated with decreased risk for PTL/PTB and infection during pregnancy and comorbities of pregnancy, with the greatest effect with 4000 IU vitamin D/day regimen. Therefore, to attain a minimal 25(OH)D level of 40 ng/mL, we recommend 4000 IU/day for all pregnant women.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D improves the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (3,000 IU)

    This double blind trial of pregnant women showed that those who took 1,000 IU of vitamin D had twice as many babies born with healthier birth weights.

    Maxwell JD. Vitamin D supplements enhance weight gain and nutritional status in pregnant Asians. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1981 Oct;88(10):987-91.

    Full Abstract:

    In a double blind trial of supplementary vitamin D (1000 iu daily) administered in the last trimester of pregnancy to Asian women living in London, supplemented mothers gained weight faster (63.3 g/day) than those in the control group (46.4 g/day), and at term had significantly higher plasma levels of retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin indicating better protein-calorie nutrition. Maternal weight gain correlated with postpartum levels of both retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin. Almost twice as many infants in the unsupplemented group weighed under 2500 g at birth, and had significantly lower retinol binding protein levels than infants of supplemented mothers. The nutritional benefits of supplementation provide further support for the routine administration of vitamin D to all British Asians during pregnancy.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Multivitamins improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    This study showed a small, significant increase in mean birth weight among infants of mothers receiving multiple micronutrients compared with infants of mothers receiving only iron-folic acid supplements. Larger micronutrient doses seemed to produce greater impact. Meaningful improvements were also observed in height and cognitive development of the children by 2 years of age.

    Shrimpton R, and associates. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in developing-country settings: policy and program implications of the results of a meta-analysis. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2009 Dec;30(4 Suppl):S556-73.

    Full Abstract:

    PURPOSE: In the United States, African American women deliver preterm and low birth weight infants two to three times more frequently than their white counterparts. Our objective was to determine whether maternal periconceptional multivitamin (MVI) use is associated with this disparity.
    METHODS: As a secondary analysis of previously collected data from mothers of non-malformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2331 non-Hispanic white and 133 non-Hispanic black mother/infant pairs from 1998 through 2007. To estimate the effect of MVI use on birth outcomes, linear regression models were used.
    RESULTS: In white subjects, MVI use was not associated with birth weight, gestational age, or weight-for-gestational-age. However, in black subjects, MVI use was associated with a 536-gram increased birth weight (p=0.001). Black MVI users also had longer gestations (although not statistically significant). When birth weights were adjusted for gestational age using z scores, MVI use was associated with increased fetal growth in black infants (+0.86 z score units, 95% confidence interval: 0.35-1.36).
    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest MVI use may improve fetal growth and possibly gestational age in the offspring of African American women.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Antioxidants improve the chance of a healthy pregnancy. SimplyOne Prenatal has over 600mg of antioxidants in a daily dose & PreNatal Blend 2 has over 1,700 mg of antioxidants in a daily dose.

    This study said that antioxidants helped prevent hypertensive disorders in pregnant women that can affect the health of the newborn.

    Lin JH, and associates. Effect of antioxidants on amelioration of high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Chinese Medical Journal (Engl). 2010 Sep;123(18):2548-2554.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: This is a prospective clinical study based on a large sample gathered from multiple centers in China, subordinating to 10th Five-Year Plan of National Science & Technology Progression. We analyzed the high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) and estimated the potential effect of anti-oxidants administration, including vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and Salvia Miltiorrhiza L (SML), a Chinese herb medicine, in amelioration of the high-risk factors in pregnancy.

    METHODS: From April 2005 to July 2006, 4814 pregnant women from 24 national wide cooperative hospitals were involved in this prospective research. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: 1607 cases were in anti-oxidants group with administration of vitamins and SML; 3207 cases were in control group without any medicine given. Every participant was under monitoring for the morbidity of HDP and the high-risk factors were investigated in HDP cases in each group.

    RESULTS: (1) The morbidity of HDP was 3.55% in anti-oxidants group vs. 4.18% in control group. No statistical difference existed between the two groups (P > 0.05). (2) In anti-oxidants group, the HDP morbidities among three subgroups: VC + VE + SML, VC + VE and SML only, were 5.51%, 3.05% and 5% respectively. It showed no statistical difference among three remedies (P > 0.05). (3) The related index of factors affecting HDP showed in intensity sequence as follows: family HDP history > profession > education level > age > body weight. The incidence of HDP in normal population was 3.51%, and the incidence of HDP in high-risk pregnant women (family HDP history, heavy physical labor, low education level (middle school and below), age ≥ 40, body mass index ≥ 24) was 5.84%, which was obviously higher than that in normal population (P < 0.01). In anti-oxidants group, the probability of HDP in women with high-risk factors was 3.81%, which was obviously lower than that in control group with high-risk factors at 7.14% (P < 0.01). (4) In control group, the morbidity of HDP in women with family HDP history (especially with sisters'), heavy physical labor, middle school and below, age ≥ 35 was: 50.00%, 15.22%, 6.33%, 26.28% and 5.75%, respectively, and that in anti-oxidants group was 0, 7.69%, 3.74%, 9.27% and 2.67%, respectively, which was obviously lower than that in control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high-risk factors prone to induce HDP included: family history of HDP, heavy physical labor, low education level, aging and obesity. No impressive effect of anti-oxidants application was found in preventing HDP in general population but the remedy demonstrated positive effect on preventing HDP in pregnant women with high-risk factors.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Beta carotene improves the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Beta carotene in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (12000 IU)

    Vitamin A is essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues. Notably during pregnancy and throughout the breastfeeding period, vitamin A has an important role in the healthy development of the fetus and the newborn, with lung development and maturation being particularly important.

    Stroben M, and associates. The importance of beta-carotene as a source of vitamin A with special regard to pregnant and breastfeeding women. European Journal of Nutrition 2007 Jul;46 Suppl 1:I1-20.

    Full Abstract:

    Vitamin A is essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues. Notably during pregnancy and throughout the breastfeeding period, vitamin A has an important role in the healthy development of the fetus and the newborn, with lung development and maturation being particularly important. The German Nutrition Society (DGE) recommends a 40% increase in vitamin A intake for pregnant women and a 90% increase for breastfeeding women. However, pregnant women or those considering becoming pregnant are generally advised to avoid the intake of vitamin A rich liver and liver foods, based upon unsupported scientific findings. As a result, the provitamin A carotenoid beta-carotene remains their essential source of vitamin A. Basic sources of provitamin A are orange and dark green vegetables, followed by fortified beverages which represent between 20% and 40% of the daily supply. The average intake of beta-carotene in Germany is about 1.5-2 mg a day. Assuming a vitamin A conversion rate for beta-carotene for juices of 4:1, and fruit and vegetables between 12:1 and 26:1; the total vitamin A contribution from beta-carotene intake represents 10-15% of the RDA. The American Pediatrics Association cites vitamin A as one of the most critical vitamins during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period, especially in terms of lung function and maturation. If the vitamin A supply of the mother is inadequate, her supply to the fetus will also be inadequate, as will later be her milk. These inadequacies cannot be compensated by postnatal supplementation. A clinical study in pregnant women with short birth intervals or multiple births showed that almost 1/3 of the women had plasma retinol levels below 1.4 micromol/l corresponding to a borderline deficiency. Despite the fact that vitamin A and beta-carotene rich food is generally available, risk groups for low vitamin A supply exist in the western world. It is therefore highly critical to restrict the beta-carotene supply from diet, particularly from sources of beta-carotene with high consumer acceptance such as fortified juices (e.g. "ACE juices") or dietary supplements (e.g. multivitamins for pregnant women). For the part of the population unable to meet vitamin A requirements according to the DACH recommendations, sufficient intake of beta-carotene may be crucial to help improve and maintain adequate vitamin A status and prevention of developmental disorders. At this time it has to be urgently advised against restricting the beta-carotene supply or putting warning labels on beta-carotene fortified products. It is, however, highly recommended to improve the available data on nutrient intakes in Germany, especially for pregnant and breastfeeding women. For them, recommendations to be aware of potential nutrient intake inadequacies might prove useful.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (1) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    Folic acid requirements are said to double during pregnancy. While 400 mcg of folic acid can reduce spina bifida birth defects by about 40 percent, this study also showed that 1000 mcg reduced birth defects by about 50 percent.

    Garcia-Morales MA, and associates. [Peri-conception use of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defect: current concepts] Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico 1996 Sep;64:418-21. [Article in Spanish]

    Full Abstract:

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is about 1.3 cases per 1000 live births. The higher incidence of NTDs occurs among certain ethnic groups, and geographic areas. The fetal morbimortality is high and the treatment for those babies who live is expensive with poor quality of live. It is unclear what biochemical mechanism involving folate explains the relationship of this vitamin to the pathogenesis of NTDs. However elevated concentrations of homocysteine or decreased methionine concentrations could be interfere with closure of the neural tube. The pharmacologic periconceptional intake of 0.4-4.0 mg/day of folic acid reduces the risk of occurrent NTDs by approximately 40-75%. A relatively high dietary intake of folate may also reduce the risk.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (2) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    This study also showed that folic acid could reduce the chances of neural tube birth defects.

    De-Regil LM, and associates. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database System Review. 2010 Oct 6;10:CD007950.

    Full Abstract:

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (3) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    This study said folic acid supplementation could reduce the risk of orofacial clefts in the baby.

    Wehby GL,;and associates. Folic acid and orofacial clefts: a review of the evidence.  Oral Diseases 2010 Jan;16(1):11-9.

    Full Abstract:

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (4) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    This study said that folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of cleft lip.

    This study said that folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of cleft lip.

    Full Abstract:

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Multivitamins improve chances of a healthy baby. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    The use of vitamin supplements in the first 4 months of pregnancy showed a protective effect against the occurrence of cleft palate.

    Loffredo LC, Souza JM, Freitas JA, Mossey PA. UNESP-Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, Brazil. Oral clefts and vitamin supplementation. Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal 2001 Jan;38(1):76-83.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: The evidence linking low levels of folic acid and orofacial clefting (OFC) is presently equivocal. There is stronger evidence for the role of folic acid supplementation in protection against the occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects. The present investigation tested the hypotheses that cleft lip, cleft palate, or both are inversely associated with maternal intake of dietary and supplemental vitamins during the periconceptional period and first 4 months of pregnancy in a Brazilian population.

    DESIGN: A population-based, case-control study of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) and isolated cleft palate (CP) in a Brazilian population. In structured interviews, case histories were taken from the mothers of a consecutive sample of 450 infants born with nonsyndromic OFC.

    RESULTS: Mothers who had children with CL(P) were less likely to have been supplemented during the periconceptional period. The statistical significance of the difference in prevalence of the use of supplements between mothers of patients and of controls was greater for the CL(P) group: p < .05 for CP and p < .001 for CL(P). Multivariate analysis confirmed this finding of a protective effect for both types of orofacial cleft.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of vitamin supplements in the first 4 months of pregnancy was suggestive of a protective effect against the occurrence of CP and CL(P) in this population. The significance of an association between multivitamin supplementation and OFC and the possible role of gene/environment interaction are discussed.

    PMID: 11204686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Calcium improves the chances of a healthy baby.Calcium in SimplyOne Prenatal (200 mg) & PreNatal Blend (100 mg)

    This study said that if women took supplemental calcium their babies were born with more bone mineral content.

    Koo WW, and associates. Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstetrics and Gynecololgy. 1999 Oct;94(4):577-82.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of maternal calcium supplementation during pregnancy on fetal bone mineralization.

    METHODS: Healthy mothers with early ultrasound confirmation of dates and singleton pregnancies were enrolled in a double-masked study and randomized before 22 weeks' gestation to 2 g/day of elemental calcium or placebo until delivery. Maternal dietary intake at randomization and at 32-33 weeks' gestation was recorded with 24-hour dietary recalls. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of the whole body and lumbar spine of the neonates were performed before hospital discharge.

    RESULTS: The infants of 256 women (128 per group) had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements during the first week of life. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in gestational age, birth weight, or length of the infants, or in the total-body or lumbar spine bone mineral content. However, when bone mineral content was analyzed by treatment group within quintiles of maternal dietary calcium intake, total body bone mineral content (mean +/- standard error of the mean) was significantly greater in infants born to calcium-supplemented mothers (64.1+/-3.2 versus 55.7+/-2.7 g in the placebo group) in the lowest quintile of dietary calcium intake (less than 600 mg/day). The effect of calcium supplementation remained significant after adjustment for maternal age and maternal body mass index and after normalization for skeletal area and body length of the infant.

    CONCLUSION: Maternal calcium supplementation of up to 2 g/day during the second and third trimesters can increase fetal bone mineralization in women with low dietary calcium intake. However, calcium supplementation in pregnant women with adequate dietary calcium intake is unlikely to result in major improvement in fetal bone mineralization.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D improves the chances of a healthy baby.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (3000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (4000 IU)

    This study said that higher amounts of vitamin D than previously used should be considered for the healthiest outcome.

    Dror DK & Allen LH. Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: biology, outcomes, and interventions. Nutrition Reviews 2010 Aug;68(8):465-77.

    Full Abstract:

    A high prevalence of maternal vitamin D inadequacy during pregnancy and at delivery has been demonstrated in various ethnic populations living at different latitudes. Because placental transfer of 25(OH)D is the major source of vitamin D to the developing human fetus, there is growing concern about adverse health impacts that hypovitaminosis D during pregnancy may have on the mother as well as the offspring in utero, in infancy, and later in life. While there is lack of consensus regarding the optimal circulating 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy, it is evident that prior levels used to establish intake recommendations and vitamin D content of prenatal vitamin supplements were too conservative. This review summarizes vitamin D metabolism in the perinatal period, examines evidence regarding outcomes of insufficiency in the mother and offspring, discusses risk factors and prevalence of insufficiency, and considers strategies for public health intervention.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin A improves the chances of a healthy baby.Vitamin A in SimplyOne Prenatal (5000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (5000 IU)

    This study said that higher vitamin A intake from food and supplements reduced the risk of orofacial clefts.

    Johansen AM, and associates. Maternal dietary intake of vitamin A and risk of orofacial clefts: a population-based case-control study in Norway. American Journal of Epidemiology 2008 May 15;167(10):1164-70.

    Full Abstract:

    A population-based case-control study was carried out in Norway between 1996 and 2001. The aim was to evaluate the association between maternal intake of vitamin A from diet and supplements and risk of having a baby with an orofacial cleft. Data on maternal dietary intake were available from 535 cases (188 with cleft palate only and 347 with cleft lip with or without cleft palate) and 693 controls. The adjusted odds ratio for isolated cleft palate only was 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.94) when comparing the fourth and first quartiles of maternal intake of total vitamin A. In contrast, there was no appreciable association of total vitamin A with isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate. An intake of vitamin A above the 95th percentile was associated with a lower estimated risk of all isolated clefts compared with the 40th–60th percentile (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 1.14). Maternal intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced risk of cleft palate only, and there is no evidence of increased risk of clefts among women in our study with the highest 5% of vitamin A intake.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Multivitamins improve chances of a full-term pregnancy. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    A study comparing women who did and did not take multi-vitamin supplements during the first and second trimester. The women who took multi-vitamins had lower premature delivery risk factors as follows: 1. Approximately 75% less risk for women who started taking multi-vitamins in the first trimester; 2. Approximately 50% less risk for women who started taking multi-vitamins in the second trimester.

    Scholl TO, and associates. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997 Jul 15;146(2):134-41.

    Full Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by low income, urban women in the Camden Study (1985-1995, n = 1,430) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks) and infant low birth weight (< 2,500 g). Prenatal supplement use was corroborated by assay of circulating micronutrients at entry to care (no differences) and week 28 gestation (increased concentrations of folate and ferritin for supplement users). Compared with women who entered care during the first or second trimester but did not use prenatal supplements, supplement use starting in the first or second trimester was associated with approximately a twofold reduction in risk of preterm delivery. After controlling for potential confounding variables, risk of very preterm delivery (< 33 weeks' gestation) was reduced more than fourfold for first trimester users and approximately twofold when use dated from the second trimester. Infant low birth weight and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) risks were also reduced. Risk of low birth weight was reduced approximately twofold with supplement use during the first and second trimester. Diminution in risk was greater for very low birth weight infants, amounting to a sevenfold reduction in risk of very low birth weight with first trimester supplementation and a greater than six-fold reduction when supplement use started in the second trimester. Thus, in low income, urban women, use of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements may have the potential to diminish infant morbidity and mortality.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Vitamin A improves the chances of a full-term pregnancy. Vitamin A in SimplyOne Prenatal (5000 IU) & PreNatal Blend 2 (5000 IU)

    A study of 736 pregnant women showed that Vitamin A (retinol, not beta carotene) deficiency was associated with a 74 percent increased chance of premature delivery. Total Vitamin A intake from supplements should be at least 2,500 IU but not more than 10,000 IU during pregnancy. (The World Health Organization says “It is safe to give fertile women, independent of their vitamin A status, as much as 10,000 IU daily at any time during pregnancy.”)

    Radhika MS, and associates. Effects of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on maternal and child health. British Journal of Gynecology 2002 Jun;109(6):689-93.
    (The World Health Organization says “It is safe to give fertile women, independent of their vitamin A status, as much as 10,000 IU daily at any time during pregnancy.”)

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between biochemical vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy and maternal and fetal health.

    DESIGN: A cross sectional clinical study.

    SETTING: Antenatal clinic of nutrition unit of Niloufer Hospital catering for a low socio-economic population, and a private nursing home (Swapna nursing home) catering for a high socio-economic population.

    POPULATION: 736 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy belonging to low (n = 522) and high socio-economic groups (n = 214).

    METHODS: All the women were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometric and obstetric examination. Night blindness was assessed by administering the standard WHO questionnaire. Birthweight and gestational age of the infants, maternal anaemia and development of pregnancy-induced hypertension in the mother were recorded. Haemoglobin and serum retinol were estimated at the time of recruitment to the study.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum retinol levels, anaemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, birth weight and gestational age of the infant.

    RESULTS: Night blindness was observed in 2.9% of the women and subclincal vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol <20 microg/dL with no clinical signs) in 27% of the women. Moderate to severe anaemia was observed in 41.2% of the women, and 15.8% of the women developed pregnancy-induced hypertension. Sixty-one (9.4%) women delivered preterm. Univariate analysis identified a significant association between serum retinol <20 microg/dL and preterm delivery (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.96), maternal anaemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.28-2.60) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.02-2.83). After adjusting for the confounding variables (body mass index, parity, age and socio-economic status) in a multivariate analysis, the significant associations between serum retinol <20 microg/dL and preterm delivery (P = 0.02) and anaemia (P = 0.003) persisted, while that for pregnancy-induced hypertension disappeared (P = 0.71).

    CONCLUSION: The study suggests that subclinical vitamin A deficiency is a problem during the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum concentration of retinol <20 microg/dL appears to indicate a deficient status, and is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and maternal anaemia.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Vitamin C improves chances of a full-term pregnancy. Vitamin C in PreNatal Blend 2 (1200 mg)

    This study showed that pregnant women who had the most vitamin C intake (≥362 mg/day) from food and supplements had twice as much chance of a full-term pregnancy as women who consumed the least amount of vitamin C (<169 mg/day).

    Siega-Riz AM, and associates. Vitamin C intake and the risk of pre-term delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology August 2003;189(2):519-525.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Ascorbic acid deficiency may lead to premature rupture of the membranes.

    STUDY DESIGN: The study included a prospective cohort of pregnant women, aged >16 years, with singleton gestations who received care at one of four prenatal clinics in central North Carolina from 1995 through 1998. Vitamin C intake pre-conceptionally and during the second trimester was examined for its association with preterm delivery and subsets of preterm labor, premature rupture of the membranes, and medical induction in 2064 women.

    RESULTS: Women who had total vitamin C intakes of <10th percentile pre-conceptionally had twice the risk of preterm delivery because of premature rupture of the membranes (relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1, 4.5). This risk was attenuated slightly for second-trimester intake (relative risk, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8, 3.5). The elevated risk of preterm premature rupture of the membranes was greatest for women with a low vitamin C intake during both time periods.

    CONCLUSION: Because diet and supplement use are modifiable behaviors, corroboration of these findings would suggest a possible intervention strategy.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Vitamin D at 1,000 IU improves the chances of full birth weight. Vitamin D in PreNatal Blend (4000 mg)

    This study showed that supplementation with 1,000 IU of Vitamin D3 per day resulted in almost twice as many babies with higher birth weights.

    Maxwell JD, and associates. Vitamin D supplements enhance weight gain and nutritional status in pregnant Asians. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1981 Oct;88(10):987-91.

    Full Abstract:

    In a double blind trial of supplementary vitamin D (1000 iu daily) administered in the last trimester of pregnancy to Asian women living in London, supplemented mothers gained weight faster (63.3 g/day) than those in the control group (46.4 g/day), and at term had significantly higher plasma levels of retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin indicating better protein-calorie nutrition. Maternal weight gain correlated with postpartum levels of both retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin. Almost twice as many infants in the unsupplemented group weighed under 2500 g at birth, and had significantly lower retinol binding protein levels than infants of supplemented mothers. The nutritional benefits of supplementation provide further support for the routine administration of vitamin D to all British Asians during pregnancy.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Multivitamins taken in the first and second trimesters significantly improved the chances of full birth weight. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    The study showed that women who took multi-vitamin supplements during the first and second trimester showed that there was 86% better chance of full birth weight when multivitamins were taken in the first trimester and 84% better chance of full birth weight when multi-vitamin use started in the second trimester.

    Scholl TO, and associates. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 Jul 15;146(2):134-41.

    Full Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by low income, urban women in the Camden Study (1985-1995, n = 1,430) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks) and infant low birth weight (< 2,500 g). Prenatal supplement use was corroborated by assay of circulating micronutrients at entry to care (no differences) and week 28 gestation (increased concentrations of folate and ferritin for supplement users). Compared with women who entered care during the first or second trimester but did not use prenatal supplements, supplement use starting in the first or second trimester was associated with approximately a twofold reduction in risk of preterm delivery. After controlling for potential confounding variables, risk of very preterm delivery (< 33 weeks' gestation) was reduced more than fourfold for first trimester users and approximately twofold when use dated from the second trimester. Infant low birth weight and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) risks were also reduced. Risk of low birth weight was reduced approximately twofold with supplement use during the first and second trimester. Diminution in risk was greater for very low birth weight infants, amounting to a sevenfold reduction in risk of very low birth weight with first trimester supplementation and a greater than sixfold reduction when supplement use started in the second trimester. Thus, in low income, urban women, use of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements may have the potential to diminish infant morbidity and mortality.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Folic acid at 1,000 mcg improves the chances of full birth weight.Folic acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1000 mcg)

    This study showed that supplementation with 400 mcg of folic acid or more per day resulted in lower homocysteine and higher birth weight as folic acid dosages increased.

    Fryer AA, and associates. Quantitative, high-resolution epigenetic profiling of CpG loci identifies associations with cord blood plasma homocysteine and birth weight in humans. Epigenetics 6:1, 86-94; January 2011.

    Full Abstract:

    Supplementation with folic acid during pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects and low birth weight. It is thought that folate and other one-carbon intermediates might secure these clinical effects via DNA methylation. We examined the effects of folate on the human methylome using quantitative interrogation of 27,578 CpG loci associated with 14,496 genes at single-nucleotide resolution across 12 fetal cord blood samples. Consistent with previous studies, the majority of CpG dinucleotides located within CpG islands exhibited hypo-methylation while those outside CpG islands showed mid-high methylation. However, for the first time in human samples, unbiased analysis of methylation across samples revealed a significant correlation of methylation patterns with plasma homocysteine, LINE-1 methylation and birth weight centile. Additionally, CpG methylation significantly correlated with either birth weight or LINE-1 methylation were predominantly located in CpG islands. These data indicate that levels of folate-associated intermediates in cord blood reflect their influence and consequences for the fetal epigenome and potentially on pregnancy outcome. In these cases, their influence might be exerted during late gestation or reflect those present during the peri-conceptual period.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Iron at 30 mg or more improves the chances of full birth weight. Iron in SimplyOne Prenatal (30 mg) & PreNatal Blend (40 mg)

    In this randomized placebo-controlled study of 513 prenatal women, 30 mg of iron per day resulted in significantly higher average birth weight and 77.7% fewer low-birth-weight babies delivered prematurely.

    Cogswell ME, and associates. Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial1,2,3 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 4, 773-781, October 2003.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: The need for prophylactic iron during pregnancy is uncertain.

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that administration of a daily iron supplement from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation to initially iron-replete, nonanemic pregnant women would reduce the prevalence of anemia at 28 wk and increase birth weight.

    DESIGN: Between June 1995 and September 1998, 513 low-income pregnant women in Cleveland were enrolled in the study before 20 wk of gestation. Of these, 275 had a hemoglobin concentration ≥ 110 g/L and a ferritin concentration ≥ 20 µg/L and were randomly assigned to receive a monthly supply of capsules containing either 30 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate or placebo until 28 wk of gestation. At 28 and 38 wk of gestation, women with a ferritin concentration of 12 to < 20 µg/L or < 12 µg/L received 30 and 60 mg Fe/d, respectively, regardless of initial assignment. Almost all the women received some supplemental iron during pregnancy. We obtained infant birth weight and gestational age at delivery for 117 and 96 of the 146 and 129 women randomly assigned to receive iron and placebo, respectively.

    RESULTS: Compared with placebo, iron supplementation from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation did not significantly affect the overall prevalence of anemia or the incidence of preterm births but led to a significantly higher mean (± SD) birth weight (206 ± 565 g; P = 0.010), a significantly lower incidence of low-birth-weight infants (4% compared with 17%; P = 0.003), and a significantly lower incidence of preterm low-birth-weight infants (3% compared with 10%; P = 0.017).

    Conclusion: Prenatal prophylactic iron supplementation deserves further examination as a measure to improve birth weight and potentially reduce health care costs.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Zinc at 25 mg or more improves the chances of full birth weight. Zinc in SimplyOne Prenatal (32 mg) & PreNatal Blend (30 mg)

    This randomized placebo-controlled study of 580 pregnant women showed that women who took 25 mg of zinc per day had babies that weighed 4.5 ounces more than women who took no zinc.

    Goldenberg, RL, and associates. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995;274(6):463-468.

    Full Abstract:

    Objective: To evaluate whether zinc supplementation during pregnancy is associated with an increase in birth weight.

    Design: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Setting: Outpatient clinic and delivery service at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

    Patients: Five hundred eighty medically indigent but otherwise healthy African-American pregnant women with plasma zinc levels below the median at enrollment in prenatal care, randomized at 19 weeks' gestational age. Women were subdivided by the population median body mass index of 26 kg/m2 into two groups for additional analyses.

    Intervention: Women who were taking a non—zinc-containing prenatal multivitamin/mineral tablet were randomized to receive either a daily dose of 25 mg of zinc or a placebo until delivery.

    Main Outcome Measures: Birth weight, gestational age at birth, and head circumference at birth.

    Results: In all women, infants in the zinc supplement group had a significantly greater birth weight (126 g, P=.03) and head circumference (0.4 cm, P=.02) than infants in the placebo group. In women with a body mass index less than 26 kg/m2, zinc supplementation was associated with a 248-g higher infant birth weight (P=.005) and a 0.7-cm larger infant head circumference (P=.007). Plasma zinc concentrations were significantly higher in the zinc supplement group.

    Conclusions: Daily zinc supplementation in women with relatively low plasma zinc concentrations in early pregnancy is associated with greater infant birth weights and head circumferences, with the effect occurring predominantly in women with a body mass index less than 26 kg/m2.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalANTI-AGING: Vitamin D Supplementation Can Reduce Aches and Pains. Vitamin D in SimplyOne 50+ (5,000 IU), SimplyOne Women (3,000 IU), PreNatal Blend (4,000 IU).

    Addressing vitamin D deficiency can reduce aches and pains.

    Multiple Citations - please read the abstracts.

    SuperNutrition was the first company to put 1,000 IU of vitamin D in a multivitamin in 1999; the first to put 1,000 IU in a one-daily multivitamin in our SimplyOne 50+ formulas; the first to put 2,000 IU in a one daily formula in SimplyOne Women; the first to put 4,000 IU in a prenatal multivitamin in PreNatal Blend. For people with chronic aches and pains we suggest working with your doctor and doing OH-vitamin D blood tests to find the optimal vitamin D daily dosage for you, as each individual is different. While SuperNutrition formulas contain higher potencies of vitamin D, some people may need more vitamin D than is in our formulas.


    Full Abstract:
    Al Faraj S, Al Mutairi K. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia. Spine (Phil aPa 1976). 2003 Jan 15;28(2):177-9.

    STUDY DESIGN: Initial assessment involved 360 patients (90% women and 10% men) attending spinal and internal medicine clinics over a 6-year period who had experienced low back pain that had no obvious cause for more than 6 months. The patients ranged in age from 15 to 52 years.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of vitamin D deficiency as a cause for idiopathic chronic low back pain, to find a simple and sensitive test for screening patients with low back pain for vitamin D deficiency, and to determine the correlation between the vitamin deficiency and pain.

    METHODS: A biochemical assay of serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D level was performed before and after treatment with vitamin D supplements.

    RESULTS: Findings showed that 83% of the study patients (n = 299) had an abnormally low level of vitamin D before treatment with vitamin D supplements. After treatment, clinical improvement in symptoms was seen in all the groups that had a low level of vitamin D, and in 95% of all the patients (n = 341).

    CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is a major contributor to chronic low back pain in areas where vitamin D deficiency is endemic. Screening for vitamin D deficiency and treatment with supplements should be mandatory in this setting. Measurement of serum 25-OH cholecalciferol is sensitive and specific for detection of vitamin D deficiency, and hence for presumed osteomalacia in patients with chronic low back pain.



    Full Abstract:
    De Torrente de la Jara G, and associates. Female asylum seekers with musculoskeletal pain: the importance of diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis D. Biomedcentral Family Practice 2006 Jan 23;7:4.

    BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D is well known in different populations, but may be under diagnosed in certain populations. We aim to determine the first diagnosis considered, the duration and resolution of symptoms, and the predictors of response to treatment in female asylum seekers suffering from hypovitaminosis D.

    METHODS: Design: A pre- and post-intervention observational study. Setting: A network comprising an academic primary care centre and nurse practitioners. Participants: Consecutive records of 33 female asylum seekers with complaints compatible with osteomalacia and with hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-(OH) vitamin D < 21 nmol/l). Treatment intervention: The patients received either two doses of 300,000 IU intramuscular cholecalciferol as well as 800 IU of cholecalciferol with 1000 mg of calcium orally, or the oral treatment only. Main outcome measures: We recorded the first diagnosis made by the physicians before the correct diagnosis of hypovitaminosis D, the duration of symptoms before diagnosis, the responders and non-responders to treatment, the duration of symptoms after treatment, and the number of medical visits and analgesic drugs prescribed 6 months before and 6 months after diagnosis. Tests: Two-sample t-tests, chi-squared tests, and logistic regression analyses were performed. Analyses were performed using SPSS 10.0.

    RESULTS: Prior to the discovery of hypovitaminosis D, diagnoses related to somatisation were evoked in 30 patients (90.9%). The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 2.53 years (SD 3.20). Twenty-two patients (66.7%) responded completely to treatment; the remaining patients were considered to be non-responders. After treatment was initiated, the responders' symptoms disappeared completely after 2.84 months. The mean number of emergency medical visits fell from 0.88 (SD 1.08) six months before diagnosis to 0.39 (SD 0.83) after (P = 0.027). The mean number of analgesic drugs that were prescribed also decreased from 1.67 (SD 1.5) to 0.85 (SD 1) (P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Hypovitaminosis D in female asylum seekers may remain undiagnosed, with a prolonged duration of chronic symptoms. The potential pitfall is a diagnosis of somatisation. Treatment leads to a rapid resolution of symptoms, a reduction in the use of medical services, and the prescription of analgesic drugs in this vulnerable population.



    Full Abstract:
    Prabhala A, and associates. Severe myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency in western New York. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000 Apr 24;160(8):1199-203.

    Five cases of severe myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency are described. Each patient was confined to a wheelchair because of weakness and immobility. Two were elderly, 1 was a 37-year-old African American with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 1 was being treated for carcinoid syndrome, and 1 was severely malnourished due to poor oral intake. In each, weakness had previously been attributed to other causes, including old age, concomitant diabetic neuropathy, or general debility. Correct diagnosis was made initially by a high index of suspicion, following the demonstration of clinical proximal myopathy; confirmation was made by the demonstration of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations. Treatment with vitamin D caused a resolution of body aches and pains and a restoration of normal muscle strength in 4 to 6 weeks. Four patients became fully mobile and had normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and the fifth also became mobile. In the 4 fully recovered cases, parathyroid hormone levels on follow-up were lower but still elevated. This finding suggests a degree of autonomy of parathyroid secretion known to occur in cases of long-standing vitamin D deficiency. Myopathy, due to chronic vitamin D deficiency, probably contributes to immobility and ill health in a significant number of patients in the northern United States. An awareness of this condition may significantly improve mobility and quality of life in patient populations vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency.



    Full Abstract:
    Gloth FM 3rd, and associates. Can vitamin D deficiency produce an unusual pain syndrome? Archives of Internal Medicine. 1991 Aug;151(8):1662-4

    An unusual pain occurred in five patients in the presence of compromised vitamin D status and resolved 5 to 7 days after supplementation with vitamin D in the form of ergocalciferol. The pain had a hyperesthetic quality and did not respond to the use of analgesics, including opiate derivatives. Treatment with therapeutic levels of a tricyclic antidepressant did not bring relief of symptoms. In one case, months after treatment and subsequent improvement of vitamin D status and pain, the vitamin D status again declined and the pain recurred. The pain again resolved with vitamin D replacement and improvement of levels. There may be a pain syndrome associated with vitamin D depletion that appears as hyperesthesia worsened by light, superficial pressure or even small increments of movement. This pain restricts mobility and function and may lead to further complications, such as pressure sores.



    We also suggest you read: Vitamin D – A Neglected 'Analgesic' for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.


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  • SimplyOne 50+ womenANTI-AGING: Folic Acid Levels Improved Bone Mineral Density For Postmenopausal Women.All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    Two studies showed that higher levels of folic acid were associated with improved bone mineral density for postmenopausal women, the group of people who are most likely to lose bone. Folic acid most likely works well for people who have less problems with bone loss, such as younger women and men.

    Mulitiple citations - please read abstracts

    Full Abstract:

    Cagnacci A, and associates. Relation of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 to bone mineral density of postmenopausal women. Bone. 20-03 Dec;33(6):956-9.

    Genetic hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with skeletal abnormalities and osteoporosis. We tested whether levels of homocysteine and critical co-enzymes of homocysteine metabolism, such as vitamin B12 and folate, are related to lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA in 161 postmenopausal women. Folate but not homocysteine or vitamin B12, was lower in osteoporotic than normal women (7.2 +/- 0.9 ng/L vs 11.4 +/- 0.7 ng/L, P < 0.003). Folate, but not homocysteine or vitamin B12, was independently related to BMD (r = 0.254, P < 0.011). BMD progressively increased from the lowest to the highest folate quartile (1.025 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 vs 1.15 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, P < 0.01) even when covaried for weight, which was the only other variable related to BMD. The present data suggest a major association between folate and bone mineralization.



    Full Abstract:

    Cagnacci A, and associates. Relation of folates, vitamin B12 and homocysteine to vertebral bone mineral density change in postmenopausal women. A five-year longitudinal evaluation. Bone 2008 Feb;42(2):314-20. Epub 2007 Nov 12.

    Elevation of homocysteine is associated with an increased risk for bone fractures. Whether the risk is due to homocysteine or to the reduced levels of cofactors necessary for its metabolisation, such as folates or vitamin B12, is not completely clear. In this study we wanted to determine whether in postmenopausal women, levels of folates, homocysteine or vitamin B12 are predictive of the rate of vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) change. The study was conducted at the centre for the menopause of our university hospital. Between September 2001 and March 2002, 161 healthy postmenopausal women volunteered for a cross-sectional evaluation of BMD and levels of serum folates, homocysteine and vitamin B12. Women were recalled for a second evaluation of vertebral BMD after about 5 years. Women having used anti-resorptive therapies for more than 1 year were excluded. The analysis was possible in 117 postmenopausal women. The annual rate of vertebral BMD change was independently related to levels of folates (coefficient of regression (CR): 2.040; 95%CI: 0.483, 3.596; p=0.011), and initial BMD values (CR: -0.060; 95%CI: -0.117, -0.003; p=0.040). No significant relation was found between the change of vertebral BMD and homocysteine or vitamin B12. BMD values at the first (r=0.225; p=0.016) and the second (r=0.206; p=0.027) evaluation were related to levels of folates, but not of homocysteine or of vitamin B12. These data suggest an important role for folates deficiency in the vertebral BMD decline of postmenopausal women.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ womenANTI-AGING: Folic Acid Levels Improved Bone Mineral Density for Postmenopausal Women. All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    This study showed that folic acid intake was associated with better bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, the group of people who are most likely to lose bone. Folic acid most likely works well for people who have less problems with bone loss, such as younger women and men.

    Rejnmark L, and associates. Dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, is associated with increased bone mineral density 5 years after the menopause: results from a 10-year follow-up study in early postmenopausal women. Calcified Tissue International. 2008 Jan;82(1):1-11. Epub 2008 Jan 4.

    Full Abstract:

    Comment: This 10-year follow-up study of 1,869 postmenopausal women looked at vitamin B12, vitamin B2 and folic acid and found that only folic acid intake was associated with better bone mineral density.

    Folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), and vitamin B12 may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data on whether dietary intakes affect bone. Our aim was to investigate whether intake of folate, vitamin B2) and vitamin B12, as assessed by food records affects BMD and fracture risk. In a population-based cohort including 1,869 perimenopausal women from the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study, associations between intakes and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Moreover, associations between intakes and 5- and 10-year changes in BMD as well as risk of fracture were studied. Intakes of folate, vitamin B2, and vitamin B12 were 417 (range 290-494) microg/day, 2.70 (range 1.70-3.16) mg/day, and 4.98 (range 3.83-6.62) microg/day, respectively, i.e., slightly above the intakes recommended by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. At year 5, but not at baseline, cross-sectional analyses showed positive correlations between daily intake from diet and from diet plus supplements of folate and BMD at the femoral neck (P < 0.01). However, no associations were found between intakes and changes in BMD. During 10 years of follow-up, 360 subjects sustained a fracture. Compared with 1,440 controls, logistic regression analyses revealed no difference in intakes between cases and controls. A high dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, exerts positive effects on BMD; but further studies are needed to confirm this association.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ MenANTI-AGING: Folic Acid improves memory. All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    This three-year double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 818 men and women, aged 50 to 70 years showed that, compared to placebo, those who took an 800 mcg folic acid supplement experienced about 13 percent better memory scores, about 8 percent better information processing speed and  about 6 percent better sensorimotor speed.

    Durga, J and Associates. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 20;369(9557):208-16.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Low folate and raised homocysteine concentrations in blood are associated with poor cognitive performance in the general population. As part of the FACIT trial to assess the effect of folic acid on markers of atherosclerosis in men and women aged 50-70 years with raised plasma total homocysteine and normal serum vitamin B12 at screening, we report here the findings for the secondary endpoint: the effect of folic acid supplementation on cognitive performance.

    METHODS: Our randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study took place between November, 1999, and December, 2004, in the Netherlands. We randomly assigned 818 participants 800 mug daily oral folic acid or placebo for 3 years. The effect on cognitive performance was measured as the difference between the two groups in the 3-year change in performance for memory, sensorimotor speed, complex speed, information processing speed, and word fluency. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov with trial number NCT00110604.

    FINDINGS: Serum folate concentrations increased by 576% (95% CI 539 to 614) and plasma total homocysteine concentrations decreased by 26% (24 to 28) in participants taking folic acid compared with those taking placebo. The 3-year change in memory (difference in Z scores 0.132, 95% CI 0.032 to 0.233), information processing speed (0.087, 0.016 to 0.158) and sensorimotor speed (0.064, -0.001 to 0.129) were significantly better in the folic acid group than in the placebo group.

    INTERPRETATION: Folic acid supplementation for 3 years significantly improved domains of cognitive function that tend to decline with age.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ MenANTI-AGING: Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Improve Memory. SuperNutrition's Simply One Men, Simply One Men 50+, Simply One Women 50+, Simply One Prenatal, Prenatal Blend, Men's Blend, Women's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Menopause Multiple, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack contain these antioxidant vitamins and minerals in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Antioxidant vitamins and minerals significantly improved memory for people aged 45 to 60 years old.

    Read Abstract for full citation.

    Full Abstract:

    "French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial," Kesse-Guyot E, and associates, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011 July 20; [Epub ahead of print].

    BACKGROUND: Antioxidant properties of some vitamins and trace elements may help to prevent cognitive decline.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to estimate the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on the cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study 6 y after the end of the trial.

    DESIGN: This study included 4447 French participants aged 45-60 y who were enrolled in the SU.VI.MAX study (1994-2002), which was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. From 1994 to 2002, participants received daily vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 μg), and zinc (20 mg) in combination or as a placebo. In 2007-2009, the cognitive performance of participants was assessed with 4 neuropsychological tests (6 tasks). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to identify cognitive-function summary scores. Associations between antioxidant supplementation and cognitive functions, in the full sample and by subgroups, were estimated through ANOVA and expressed as mean differences and 95% CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics.

    RESULTS: Subjects receiving active antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.20). PCA indicated 2 factors that were interpreted as showing verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory was improved by antioxidant supplementation only in subjects who were nonsmokers or who had low serum vitamin C concentrations at baseline.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ WomenANTI-AGING: Multivitamins Improve Heart Health For Women. All SuperNutrition Simply One multivitamins provide these nutrients, but in higher more optimal potencies.

    Women who took a low dose one-daily multivitamin had significantly less chances of having a heart attack.

    Rautianen S, and associates. Multivitamin use and the risk of myocardial infarction: a population-based cohort of Swedish women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010: doi 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29371

    Full Abstract:

    Comment: This 10-year study of 31,671 women with no history of cardiovascular disease and 2,262 women with cardiovascular disease showed that taking a low potency one-daily multivitamin reduced the chances of a heart attack by an average of 27 percent. Those women who took the vitamins for more than five years were 41 percent less likely to experience a heart attack.

    Background: Dietary supplements are widely used in industrialized countries.

    Objective: The objective was to examine the association between multivitamin use and myocardial infarction (MI) in a prospective, population-based cohort of women.

    Design: The study included 31,671 women with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 2262 women with a history of CVD aged 49–83 y from Sweden. Women completed a self-administered questionnaire in 1997 regarding dietary supplement use, diet, and lifestyle factors. Multivitamins were estimated to contain nutrients close to recommended daily allowances: vitamin A (0.9 mg), vitamin C (60 mg), vitamin D (5 lg), vitamin E (9 mg), thiamine (1.2 mg), riboflavin (1.4 mg), vitamin B-6 (1.8 mg), vitamin B-12 (3 lg), and folic acid (400 lg).

    Results: During an average of 10.2 y of follow-up, 932 MI cases were identified in the CVD-free group and 269 cases in the CVD group. In the CVD-free group, use of multivitamins only, compared with no use of supplements, was associated with a multivariableadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.93). The HR for multivitamin use together with other supplements was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.87). The HR for use of supplements other than multivitamins was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.08). The use of multivitamins for 5 y was associated with an HR of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.80). In the CVD group, use of multivitamins alone or together with other supplements was not associated with MI.

    Conclusions: The use of multivitamins was inversely associated with MI, especially long-term use among women with no CVD. Further prospective studies with detailed information on the content of preparations and the duration of use are needed to confirm or refute our findings. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:1251–6

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  • SimplyOne MenFOR MEN: Nutrients in SuperNutrition Formulas For Men That Improve Memory.

    This multi-vitamin/mineral supplement improved memory for men 30 – 55 years old.

    Kennedy David O, and associates. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (2010) 211(1):55-68 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men, except vitamin C, are superior and more optimal. SuperNutrition Men's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in these SuperNutrition formulas are superior and more optimal.


    Full Abstract:

    Rationale
    A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults.

    Objectives
    The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment.

    Methods
    Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed.

    Results
    Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery.

    Conclusions
    Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ MenFOR MEN: Nutrients that support better memory for older men.

    This 2-year study of men 70 years and older showed that taking 800 mcg of folic acid, 500 mcg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6 improved three different measures of memory.

    de Jager CA, and associates. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2011 Jul 21. doi: 10.1002/gps.2758. [Epub ahead of print]

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men 50+ contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 225 mcg of vitamin B12, and 40 mg of vitamin B6. SuperNutrition Opti-Energy Pack contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12, and 250 mg of vitamin B6. SuperNutrition Super Immune Multivitamin contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12, and 200 mg of vitamin B6.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In the first report on the VITACOG trial, we showed that homocysteine-lowering treatment with B vitamins slows the rate of brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we report the effect of B vitamins on cognitive and clinical decline (secondary outcomes) in the same study.

    METHODS: This was a double-blind, single-centre study, which included participants with MCI, aged ≥70 y, randomly assigned to receive a daily dose of 0.8 mg folic acid, 0.5 mg vitamin B(12) and 20 mg vitamin B(6) (133 participants) or placebo (133 participants) for 2 y. Changes in cognitive or clinical function were analysed by generalized linear models or mixed-effects models.

    RESULTS: The mean plasma total homocysteine was 30% lower in those treated with B vitamins relative to placebo. B vitamins stabilized executive function (CLOX) relative to placebo (P = 0.015). There was significant benefit of B-vitamin treatment among participants with baseline homocysteine above the median (11.3 µmol/L) in global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination, P < 0.001), episodic memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall, P = 0.001) and semantic memory (category fluency, P = 0.037). Clinical benefit occurred in the B-vitamin group for those in the upper quartile of homocysteine at baseline in global clinical dementia rating score (P = 0.02) and IQCODE score (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: In this small intervention trial, B vitamins appear to slow cognitive and clinical decline in people with MCI, in particular in those with elevated homocysteine. Further trials are needed to see if this treatment will slow or prevent conversion from MCI to dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • SimplyOne MenFOR MEN: Nutrients That Support More Physical Strength in SuperNutrition Formulas For Men.

    This multi-vitamin/mineral supplement improved cognitive performance under stress, including improved memory, with improved feelings of vigor, physical strength, energy and well-being with reduced feelings of mental and physical fatigue for healthy males, ages 30 - 55.

    Kennedy David O, and associates. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (2010) 211(1):55-68 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men provides all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men, except vitamin C, are superior and more optimal. SuperNutrition Men's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in these SuperNutrition formulas are superior and more optimal.

    Full Abstract:

    Rationale: A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults.

    Objectives: The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment.

    Methods: Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed.

    Results: Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery.

    Conclusions: Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.

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  • SimplyOne MenFOR MEN: Reduced Fatigue - Men. Nutrients That Support Reduced Fatigue in SuperNutrition Formulas For Men

    This multi-vitamin/mineral supplement improved cognitive performance under stress, including improved memory, with improved feelings of vigor, physical strength, energy and well-being with reduced feelings of mental and physical fatigue for healthy males, ages 30 - 55.

    Kennedy David O, and associates. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (2010) 211(1):55-68 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men provides all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men, except vitamin C, are superior and more optimal. SuperNutrition Men's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in these SuperNutrition formulas are superior and more optimal.

    Full Abstract:

    Rationale: A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults.

    Objectives: The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment.

    Methods: Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed.

    Results: Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery.

    Conclusions: Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFOR KIDS: Multivitamins improve memory, reaction time and other barometers of healthy brain function in healthy children. Perfect Kids Multivitamin

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation of eighty-one children, aged 8 to 14 concluded that a low potency multi-vitamin/mineral formula improved memory, reaction time and other barometers of brain function. SuperNutrition Perfect Kids provides all the vitamins and minerals in the multivitamin in the study, but in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Haskell CF, and associates. Cognitive and mood effects in healthy children during 12 weeks' supplementation with multi-vitamin/minerals. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008 Nov;100(5):1086-96. Epub 2008 May 29.

    SuperNutrition Perfect Kids provides all the vitamins and minerals in the multivitamin in the study, but in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Full Abstract:

    Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are essential for optimal neural functioning. A high proportion of individuals, including children, suffer from deficiencies in one or more vitamins or minerals. This study investigated whether daily supplementation with vitamins/minerals could modulate cognitive performance and mood in healthy children. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation, eighty-one healthy children aged from 8 to 14 years underwent laboratory assessments of their cognitive performance and mood pre-dose and at 1 and 3 h post-dose on the first and last days of 12 weeks' supplementation with a commercially available vitamins/mineral product (Pharmaton Kiddi). Interim assessments were also completed at home after 4 and 8 weeks at 3 h post-dose. Each assessment comprised completion of a cognitive battery, delivered over the Internet, which included tasks assessing mood and the speed and accuracy of attention and aspects of memory (secondary, semantic and spatial working memory). The vitamin/mineral group performed more accurately on two attention tasks: 'Arrows' choice reaction time task at 4 and 8 weeks; 'Arrow Flankers' choice reaction time task at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A single task outcome (Picture Recognition errors) evinced significant decrements at 12 weeks. Mood was not modulated in any interpretable manner. Whilst it is possible that the significant improvements following treatment were due to non-significant numerical differences in performance at baseline, these results would seem to suggest that vitamin/mineral supplementation has the potential to improve brain function in healthy children. This proposition requires further investigation.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFOR KIDS: Zinc at 20mg improved the speed of visual memory, word recognition and sustained attention. Perfect Kids Multivitamin

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 209 7th-graders looked at hand-to-eye coordination, attention, memory and problem-solving and showed that compared to kids given no zinc or 10 mg of zinc...

    "Zinc supplementation improved mental performance of 7th-grade boys and girls," News Release, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, April 4, 2005.

    Perfect Kids Dosing and Age

    • For 4 - 6 year olds 1 tablet with 5 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 7 - 8 year olds 2 tablets with 10 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 9 - 11 year olds 3 tablets with 15 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 12 - 13 year old 4 tablets with 20 mg of zinc makes them smarter

    Full Abstract

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 209 7th-graders looked at hand-to-eye coordination, attention, memory and problem-solving and showed that compared to kids given no zinc or 10 mg of zinc:

    13-year old kids given 20 mg of zinc were:

    • Twice as fast when their visual memory was tested;
    • Three times better in word recognition tests;
    • Six times better in their sustained attention tasks.
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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) reduced PMS significantly at 100 mg and 200 mg per day. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in SimplyOne Women (100mg) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (200mg)

    This retrospective study of 630 women show ed that while 100 mg to 150 mg of supplemental vitamin B6 reduced PMS in about 66% of the women, 160 mg to 200 mg of Vitamin B6 reduced PMS in about 79% of the women.

    Brush MG, and associates. Pyridoxine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a retrospective survey in 630 patients. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1988 Nov;42(11):448-52.

    Full Abstract:

    We present a survey summarizing the retrospective reports of the therapeutic effect of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in 630 women suffering from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) who attended a PMS clinic during the period 1976-1983. The daily doses of pyridoxine hydrochloride varied from 40 to 100 mg early in the study and from 120 to 200 mg in the later period of the investigations. The response to treatment was recorded as good (no significant residual complaints) in 40 per cent or more of patients taking 100-150 mg pyridoxine daily and in 60 per cent of patients treated with 160-200 mg daily. Together with partial response (useful benefit but still some significant complaints), the positive effect of the treatment increased to 65-68 per cent and 70-88 per cent respectively. No symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were reported.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin D at a medium intake of 706 IU per day was associated with a 41 percent more decrease in PMS than 112 IU per day. Vitamin D in SimplyOne Women (3000IU) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (2500IU)

    Looking at the vitamin D intake of Women in the Nurses’ Health Study II, this study concluded that women with a higher median vitamin D intake of 706 IU per day had significantly less (or no) PMS than subjects who got a median of the least amount of vitamin D, 112 IU per day.

     Bertone-Johnson, ER, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005 Jun 13;165(11):1246-52.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most common disorders of premenopausal women. Studies suggest that blood calcium and vitamin D levels are lower in women with PMS and that calcium supplementation may reduce symptom severity, but it is unknown whether these nutrients may prevent the initial development of PMS.

    METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Participants were a subset of women aged 27 to 44 years and free from PMS at baseline in 1991, including 1057 women who developed PMS over 10 years of follow-up and 1968 women reporting no diagnosis of PMS and no or minimal menstrual symptoms. Intake of calcium and vitamin D was measured in 1991, 1995, and 1999 by a food frequency questionnaire.

    RESULTS: After adjustment for age, parity, smoking status, and other risk factors, women in the highest quintile of total vitamin D intake (median, 706 IU/d) had a relative risk of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.86) compared with those in the lowest quintile (median, 112 IU/d) (P = .01 for trend). The intake of calcium from food sources was also inversely related to PMS; compared with women with a low intake (median, 529 mg/d), participants with the highest intake (median, 1283 mg/d) had a relative risk of 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.97) (P = .02 for trend). The intake of skim or low-fat milk was also associated with a lower risk (P<.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of PMS. Large-scale clinical trials addressing this issue are warranted. Given that calcium and vitamin D may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis and some cancers, clinicians may consider recommending these nutrients even for younger women.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Chaste tree berry (vitex) extract has been shown to reduce PMS.Chaste berry extract in SimplyOne Women (30mg) & Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (100mg)

    This randomized placebo-controlled 3-month study of premenstrual syndrome in 170 women (average age 36) showed that 20 mg of chaste berry extract reduced PMS about 28% better than placebo. The women noted significant reductions in irritability, mood disturbances, anger, headache, and breast fullness compared to the placebo group.

    Schellenberg R, and associates. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus ifruit extract: prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. British Medical Journal 2001 Jan 20;322:134-137.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of agnus castus fruit (Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440) with placebo for women with the premenstrual syndrome.

    DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles.

    SETTING: General medicine community clinics. Participants: 178 women were screened and 170 were evaluated (active 86; placebo 84). Mean age was 36 years, mean cycle length was 28 days, mean duration of menses was 4.5 days.

    INTERVENTIONS: Agnus castus (dry extract tablets) one tablet daily or matching placebo, given for three consecutive cycles.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main efficacy variable: change from baseline to end point (end of third cycle) in women's self assessment of irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, breast fullness, and other menstrual symptoms including bloating. Secondary efficacy variables: changes in clinical global impression (severity of condition, global improvement, and risk or benefit) and responder rate (50% reduction in symptoms).

    RESULTS: Improvement in the main variable was greater in the active group compared with placebo group (P<0.001). Analysis of the secondary variables showed significant (P<0.001) superiority of active treatment in each of the three global impression items. Responder rates were 52% and 24% for active and placebo, respectively. Seven women reported mild adverse events (four active; three placebo), none of which caused discontinuation of treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dry extract of agnus castus fruit is an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Calcium carbonate at 1,000 mg per day reduced PMS.Calcium carbonate in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (1000 mg–carbonate & citrate)

    This randomized placebo-controlled study of 78 women showed a 58 percent better reduction in PMS with 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate than with placebo during the luteal and menstrual phases of the reproductive cycle. Both water retention and pain scores were significantly reduced by calcium carbonate supplementation.

    Thys-Jacobs S, and associates. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome a randomized crossover trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1989;4(3):183-9.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of calcium supplementation in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

    DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover trial.

    SETTING: Outpatient medical clinic of a large city hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight women were initially screened. Trial selection was based on a history of recurrent PMS symptoms and on the results of a prospective assessment of daily symptom scores. Only women with symptom scores during the late luteal phase that were at least 50% greater than those during the intermenstrual phase were selected. Thirty-three women completed the trial.

    INTERVENTION: A preliminary evaluation included physical examination, routine laboratory tests, dietary assessment, and psychiatric evaluation. Each participant received six months of treatment involving three months of daily calcium supplementation (1,000 mg of calcium carbonate) and three months of placebo.

    MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy was assessed prospectively by changes in daily symptom scores over a six-month period and retrospectively by an overall global assessment. Multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance on symptom ratings derived from daily PMS symptom scores demonstrated a reduction in symptoms on calcium treatment during both the luteal (p = 0.011) and the menstrual phases (p = 0.032) of the reproductive cycle. Calcium supplementation had no effect during the intermenstrual phase. Retrospective assessment of overall symptoms confirmed this reduction: 73% of the women reported fewer symptoms during the treatment phase on calcium, 15% preferred placebo, and 12% had no clear preference. Three premenstrual factors (negative affect [p = 0.045]; water retention [p = 0.003]; pain [p = 0.036]) and one menstrual factor (pain [p = 0.02]) were significantly alleviated by calcium.

    CONCLUSION: Calcium supplementation is a simple and effective treatment for premenstrual syndrome, but further studies will be needed to determine its precise role in PMS.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Magnesium at 200 and 360 mg per day reduced PMS.Magnesium in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (600 mg)

    Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showed that magnesium at 360 mg per day reduced headaches and pain, and at 200 mg reduced weight gain, fluid retention, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness and abdominal bloating.

    Facchinetti F, and associates. Magnesium prophylaxsis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991 May;31(5):298-301. Walker AF, and associates. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. Journal of Womens Health 1998 Nov;7(9):1157-65.

    Full Abstract:

    We investigated the effect of a daily supplement of 200 mg of magnesium (as MgO) for two menstrual cycles on the severity of premenstrual symptoms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. A daily supplement of 200 mg of Mg (as MgO) or placebo was administered for two menstrual cycles to each volunteer, who kept a daily record of her symptoms, using a 4-point scale in a menstrual diary of 22 items. Symptoms were grouped into six categories: PMS-A (anxiety), PMS-C (craving), PMS-D (depression), PMS-H (hydration), PMS-O (other), and PMS-T (total overall symptoms). Urinary Mg output/24 hours was estimated from spot samples using the Mg/creatinine ratio. Analysis of variance for 38 women showed no effect of Mg supplementation compared with placebo in any category in the first month of supplementation. In the second month there was a greater reduction (p = 0.009) of symptoms of PMS-H (weight gain, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness, abdominal bloating) with Mg supplementation compared with placebo. Compliance to supplementation was confirmed by the greater mean estimated 24-hour urinary output of Mg (p = 0.013) during Mg supplementation (100.8 mg) compared with placebo (74.1 mg). A daily supplement of 200 mg of Mg (as MgO) reduced mild premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention in the second cycle of administration.

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  • SuperNutrition PMS: Vitamin E was shown to reduce PMS in 15 categories of PMS. Vitamin E in Women’s Blend & Women’s Blend 2 (400 IU)

    This randomized, placebo-controlled study confirmed a previous study by the same author, showing that with 400 IU of natural form vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) "all major categories of PMS symptoms are improved with supplementation of 400 IU of vitamin E daily." In all 15 categories of symptoms, vitamin E supplemented women reported 27-42% reduction in severity.

    London RS, and associates. Efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1987 Jun;32(6):4004-4.

    Full Abstract:

    In a preliminary study, alpha-tocopherol supplementation was effective in reducing specific symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). To confirm these findings, we performed a randomized, double-blind study using d,alpha-tocopherol and placebo in a carefully screened population of women with PMS. Standardized PMS questionnaires were administered in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle to all subjects, before and after daily treatment with 400 IU d,alpha-tocopherol or placebo for three cycles. Of the 46 subjects enrolled, 41 completed the clinical trial. A significant improvement in certain affective and physical symptoms was noted in subjects treated with d,alpha-tocopherol.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin D at higher doses reduced the rate of bone fractures.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Women (3,000IU), Women’s Blend (1,000IU), Simply One Men (3,000IU), SuperNutrition Menopause Multiple (1,000IU), SuperNutrition Opti-Energy Pack (1,000IU), SuperNutrition Calcium Blend (1,000IU)

    A major review of scientific studies since 1960 found that 700-800 IU of supplemental vitamin D reduced bone fractures 23% to 26%, while 400 IU was not sufficient for fracture prevention.

    Bischoff-Ferrari H, and associates. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64.

    Full Abstract:

    CONTEXT: The role and dose of oral vitamin D supplementation in nonvertebral fracture prevention have not been well established.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in preventing hip and nonvertebral fractures in older persons.

    DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of English and non-English articles using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2005), and EMBASE (1991-2005). Additional studies were identified by contacting clinical experts and searching bibliographies and abstracts presented at the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (1995-2004). Search terms included randomized controlled trial (RCT), controlled clinical trial, random allocation, double-blind method, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fractures, humans, elderly, falls, and bone density.

    STUDY SELECTION: Only double-blind RCTs of oral vitamin D supplementation (cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol) with or without calcium supplementation vs calcium supplementation or placebo in older persons (> or =60 years) that examined hip or nonvertebral fractures were included.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Independent extraction of articles by 2 authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators.

    DATA SYNTHESIS: All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Five RCTs for hip fracture (n = 9294) and 7 RCTs for nonvertebral fracture risk (n = 9820) met our inclusion criteria. All trials used cholecalciferol. Heterogeneity among studies for both hip and nonvertebral fracture prevention was observed, which disappeared after pooling RCTs with low-dose (400 IU/d) and higher-dose vitamin D (700-800 IU/d), separately. A vitamin D dose of 700 to 800 IU/d reduced the relative risk (RR) of hip fracture by 26% (3 RCTs with 5572 persons; pooled RR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.88) and any nonvertebral fracture by 23% (5 RCTs with 6098 persons; pooled RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87) vs calcium or placebo. No significant benefit was observed for RCTs with 400 IU/d vitamin D (2 RCTs with 3722 persons; pooled RR for hip fracture, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88-1.50; and pooled RR for any nonvertebral fracture, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.24).

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin D supplementation between 700 to 800 IU/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and any nonvertebral fractures in ambulatory or institutionalized elderly persons. An oral vitamin D dose of 400 IU/d is not sufficient for fracture prevention.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin K1 supplementation was associated with improved bone mineral density. ALL SuperNutrition multivitamins, except Perfect Kids, have 80mcg or more of vitamin K1 in a daily dose.Vitamin K1 in Calcium Blend (80 mcg)

    80 mcg/day of vitamin K1 improved carboxylated osteocalcin in postmenopausal women. This measure correlates with improved bone mineral density.

    Schaafsma A, and associates. Vitamin D3 and vitamin K1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities: effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54:626.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60 -y-old postmenopausal Dutch women.

    DESIGN: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n=96) and low (T-score< or =-1; n=45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with 350-400 IU vitamin D(3), 80 microg vitamins K(1), vitamins K(1)+D(3), or placebo for 1 y. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and percentage carboxylated osteocalcin (%carbOC) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: Baseline %carbOC of the entire study population was positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Correspondingly, women with low BMD had lower %carbOC at baseline than women with normal BMD but this difference disappeared after 1 y of supplementation with vitamin K(1) ((mean+/-s.d.) 68+/-11% (95% CI, 64. 5-71.2%) vs 72+/-6% (95% CI, 70.1-72.9%), respectively). One year of supplementation with vitamin D(3) showed maximum increases in 25(OH)D of 33+/-29% (95% CI, 24.8-41.8%) and 68+/-58% (95% CI, 50.1-84.6%) in women with normal and low BMD, respectively. During winter, however, a 29% decline in maximum 25(OH)D levels was not prevented in women with low BMD.

    CONCLUSION: Daily supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with >400 IU vitamin D(3) is indicated to prevent a winter decline in 25(OH)D and to control serum parathyroid hormone levels. Daily supplementation with 80 microg vitamin K(1) seems to be necessary to reach premenopausal %carbOC levels. A stimulatory effect of calcium and/or vitamin D on %carbOC cannot be excluded.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Boron improved calcium and magnesium retention in the body and improved levels of bone-building hormones. All SuperNutrition Multivitamins for adults and Calcium Blend contain 3 mg of boron.

    Boron, at 3 mg/day, has been shown to improve calcium retention in the body.

    Nielsen FH, and associates. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB Journal. 1987 Nov;1(5):394-7.

    Full Abstract:

    A study was done to examine the effects of aluminum, magnesium, and boron on major mineral metabolism in postmenopausal women. This communication describes some of the effects of dietary boron on 12 women between the ages of 48 and 82 housed in a metabolic unit. A boron supplement of 3 mg/day markedly affected several indices of mineral metabolism of seven women consuming a low-magnesium diet and five women consuming a diet adequate in magnesium; the women had consumed a conventional diet supplying about 0.25 mg boron/day for 119 days. Boron supplementation markedly reduced the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium; the depression seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Boron supplementation depressed the urinary excretion of phosphorus by the low-magnesium, but not by the adequate-magnesium, women. Boron supplementation markedly elevated the serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone; the elevation seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Neither high dietary aluminum (1000 mg/day) nor an interaction between boron and aluminum affected the variables presented. The findings suggest that supplementation of a low-boron diet with an amount of boron commonly found in diets high in fruits and vegetables induces changes in postmenopausal women consistent with the prevention of calcium loss and bone demineralization.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Iron intake was associated with greater bone density in 5 bone types. Daily doses of iron & calcium in Calcium Blend (40mg iron, 1,250mg calcium), Super Immune Multivitamin (24mg iron, 1,000mg calcium), Opti-Energy Pack (40mg iron, 1,250mg calcium).

    Iron intake at more than 20 mg/day when calcium intake was between 800 to 1200 mg/day was associated with greater bone mineral density in several types of bone in healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women. The authors noted that iron was necessary for healthy bone collagen, which gives bone its flexibility and ability to absorb impact with reduced risk of fracture.

    Harris MM, and associates. Dietary iron is associated with bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. Journal of Nutrition 133;3598-3602, 2003.

    Full Abstract:

    Healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women (n = 242; ages 40-66 y) were included in the Bone, Estrogen, and Strength Training (BEST) Study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at five sites (lumbar spine L2-L4, trochanter, femur neck, Ward's triangle and total body) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean nutrient intakes were assessed using a 3-d diet record. Regression models were calculated using each BMD site as the dependent variable and iron as the independent variable. Covariates included in the models were years past menopause, fat-free mass, fat mass, use of hormone replacement therapy, total energy intake and dietary intake of protein and calcium. Using linear models, iron was associated with greater BMD at all sites (P < or = 0.01), even after adjusting for protein and/or calcium. Increasing levels of iron intake (>20 mg) were associated with greater BMD at several bone sites among women with a mean calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/d. Elevated iron intake was not associated with greater BMD among women with higher (>1200 mg/d) or lower calcium intakes (<800 mg/d). Dietary iron may be a more important factor in bone mineralization than originally thought and, its combined effect with calcium on BMD warrants exploration in future studies.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Vitamin C supplementation increased spinal bone density.Daily dose of vitamin C in Women’s Blend (1000 mg), PreNatal Blend (1000 mg), Calcium Blend (1000 mg), Opti-Energy Pack (1200 mg), Menopause Multiple (1500 mg), Super Immune Multivitamin (1500 mg).

    Postmenopausal women who took 1,000 mg/day over a three-year time period had 5 percent greater spinal bone density than women who took 500 mg.

    Morton DJ, and associates. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2001, 16:135-140.

    Full Abstract:

    Vitamin C is known to stimulate procollagen, enhance collagen synthesis, and stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for osteoblast formation. Studies of dietary vitamin C intake and the relation with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conflicting, probably because of the well-known limitations of dietary nutrient assessment questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent relation of daily vitamin C supplement use with BMD in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women. Subjects were 994 women from a community-based cohort of whom 277 women were regular vitamin C supplement users. Vitamin C supplement use was validated. Daily vitamin C supplement intake ranged from 100 to 5,000 mg; the mean daily dose was 745 mg. Average duration of use was 12.4 years; 85% had taken vitamin C supplements for more than 3 years. BMD levels were measured at the ultradistal and midshaft radii, hip, and lumbar spine. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and total calcium intake, vitamin C users had BMD levels approximately 3% higher at the midshaft radius, femoral neck, and total hip (p < 0.05). In a fully adjusted model, significant differences remained at the femoral neck (p < 0.02) and marginal significance was observed at the total hip (p < 0.06). Women taking both estrogen and vitamin C had significantly higher BMD levels at all sites. Among current estrogen users, those also taking vitamin C had higher BMD levels at all sites, with marginal significance achieved at the ultradistal radius (p < 0.07), femoral neck (p < 0.07), and total hip (p < 0.09). Women who took vitamin C plus calcium and estrogen had the highest BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.001), total hip (p = 0.05), ultradistal radius (p = 0.02), and lumbar spine. Vitamin C supplement use appears to have a beneficial effect on levels of BMD, especially among postmenopausal women using concurrent estrogen therapy and calcium supplements.

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Magnesium increased the density of a major component of bone.Magnesium in Women’s Blend (600 mg), Menopause Multiple (600 mg), Super Immune Multivitamin (600 mg), Opti-Energy Pack (700 mg)

    Magnesium dosing between 250 mg and 750 mg increased trabecular bone density between 1 and 8 percent for a majority of postmenopausal women in this 2-year study.

    Stendig-Lindberg G, and associates. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnesium Research. 1993 Jun;6(2):155-63.

    Full Abstract:

    Since magnesium regulates calcium transport, and magnesium replacement in magnesium-deficient postmenopausal patients resulted in unexpected improvement in documented osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of magnesium treatment on trabecular bone density in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thirty-one postmenopausal patients (mean age +/- SD = 57.6 +/- 10.6 years), consecutively admitted to the Back Rehabilitation Unit with musculoskeletal pain of non-malignant origin and bone density values of < or = 1.19 g/cm3 (measured by Compton Bone Densitometer), received two to six tablets daily of 125 mg each of magnesium hydroxide (Magnesium Magma USP/; 'Mazor', Israel) for 6 months and two tablets for another 18 months in a 2 year, open, controlled therapeutic trial. Twenty-three symptom-free postmenopausal women (mean +/- SD = 61.2 +/- 6.2 years) whose bone density was concurrently assessed at the same laboratory and who were found to have osteoporosis but refused treatment, served as controls. No new fractures occurred. Twenty-two patients (71 per cent) responded by a 1-8 per cent rise of bone density. The mean bone density of all treated patients increased significantly after 1 year (P < 0.02) and remained unchanged after 2 years (P > 0.05). The mean bone density of the responders increased significantly both after one year (P < 0.001) and after 2 years (P < 0.02), while in untreated controls, the mean bone density decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The disparity between the initial mean bone density and bone density after one year in all osteoporotic patients and in the responders differed significantly from that of the controls (both P < 0.001).

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  • SuperNutritionSTRONGER BONES: Calcium, zinc, manganese and copper, taken together, increased bone density.Women’s Blend, Menopause Multiple, Super Immune Multivitamin , Opti-Energy Pack, PreNatal Blend and Calcium Blend all contain these amounts in a daily dose.

    Calcium (1,000 mg) with zinc (15 mg), manganese (5 mg) and copper (2.5 mg) increased bone density 5.01 percent better than placebo.

    Strause L, and associates. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. Journal of Nutrition 1994 Jul;124(7):1060-4.

    Full Abstract:

    The effects of calcium supplementation (as calcium citrate malate, 1000 mg elemental Ca/d) with and without the addition of zinc (15.0 mg/d), manganese (5.0 mg/d) and copper (2.5 mg/d) on spinal bone loss (L2-L4 vertebrae) was evaluated in healthy older postmenopausal women (n = 59, mean age 66 y) in a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Changes (mean +/- SEM) in bone density were -3.53 +/- 1.24% (placebo), -1.89 +/- 1.40% (trace minerals only), -1.25 +/- 1.46% (calcium only) and 1.48 +/- 1.40% (calcium plus trace minerals). Bone loss relative to base-line value was significant (P = 0.0061) in the placebo group but not in the groups receiving trace minerals alone, calcium alone, or calcium plus trace minerals. The only significant group difference occurred between the placebo group and the group receiving calcium plus trace minerals (P = 0.0099). These data suggest that bone loss in calcium-supplemented, older postmenopausal women can be further arrested by concomitant increases in trace mineral intake.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (3,000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (1000 IU)

    This study said that previous vitamin D recommendations for pregnancy, 200 to 400 IU/day were too conservative and recommended considering the need for higher doses.

    Dror DK, Allen LH. Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: biology, outcomes, and interventions. Nutrition Reviews 2010 Aug;68(8):465-77. Dror DK Allen LH. USDA ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, California, 95616, USA. dkdror@ucdavis.edu

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (vitD) deficiency during pregnancy is a serious public health issue, affecting mother and fetus. Establishing optimal vitD requirements of pregnant women is vital in preventing vitD deficiency and its health-associated comorbidities.
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of high dose vitD supplementation in decreasing pregnancy comorbidity risks.
    DESIGN/METHODS: Following their consent, pregnant women 12-16 wks' gestation were randomized into 1 of 3 tx grps stratified by race: 400, 2000 or 4000 IU vitD3/day until delivery. Women were evaluated for safety (Abstr#750939), efficacy and effectiveness with monthly 25(OH)D; 1,25(OH)2D; serum Ca, Cr, phos, and urinary Ca/Cr levels, all measured using standardized methodology. Comorbidities of pregnancy (preeclampsia, gest diabetes, any infection, preterm labor (PTL)/preterm birth (PTB)<37 wks GA) were recorded prospectively for each subject. Investigators and health team were blinded to tx grp.
    RESULTS: Of the 494 women who enrolled in the study, 350 women continued until delivery: 98 African American (AA), 137 Hispanic (Hisp) and 115 Caucasian (Cauc) women; with 111 controls, 122 in 2000 IU and 117 in 4000 IU groups. There were no differences in baseline vitD status between dose groups. The mean 25(OH)D by dose group at delivery, as chronic level, and 1-month before delivery were significantly different between control and 2000, control and 4000, and 2000 vs. 4000 (p<0.0001). 25(OH)D had a direct influence on 1,25(OH)2D levels throughout pregnancy (p<0.0001) with 25(OH)D of 40 ng/mL required to obtain maximum 1,25(OH)2D production. In bivariate analyses controlling for race, PTL/PTB and infection were inversely related to 25(OH)D and were lowest in the 4000 IU grp (p<0.0001). In logistic regression, comparing 400 vs. 4000 IU and controlling for race, the risk of comorbidities were 0.50 (CI 0.27-0.95; p=0.03) among those in the 4000 IU grp. Using least sq means, when adjusting for race, 25(OH)D of women with comorbidities was 33.4 ng/mL compared to 39.0 ng/mL in those women without (p<0.008).
    CONCLUSIONS: VitD sufficiency was strongly associated with decreased risk for PTL/PTB and infection during pregnancy and comorbities of pregnancy, with the greatest effect with 4000 IU vitamin D/day regimen. Therefore, to attain a minimal 25(OH)D level of 40 ng/mL, we recommend 4000 IU/day for all pregnant women.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D improves the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (3,000 IU)

    This double blind trial of pregnant women showed that those who took 1,000 IU of vitamin D had twice as many babies born with healthier birth weights.

    Maxwell JD. Vitamin D supplements enhance weight gain and nutritional status in pregnant Asians. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1981 Oct;88(10):987-91.

    Full Abstract:

    In a double blind trial of supplementary vitamin D (1000 iu daily) administered in the last trimester of pregnancy to Asian women living in London, supplemented mothers gained weight faster (63.3 g/day) than those in the control group (46.4 g/day), and at term had significantly higher plasma levels of retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin indicating better protein-calorie nutrition. Maternal weight gain correlated with postpartum levels of both retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin. Almost twice as many infants in the unsupplemented group weighed under 2500 g at birth, and had significantly lower retinol binding protein levels than infants of supplemented mothers. The nutritional benefits of supplementation provide further support for the routine administration of vitamin D to all British Asians during pregnancy.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Multivitamins improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    This study showed a small, significant increase in mean birth weight among infants of mothers receiving multiple micronutrients compared with infants of mothers receiving only iron-folic acid supplements. Larger micronutrient doses seemed to produce greater impact. Meaningful improvements were also observed in height and cognitive development of the children by 2 years of age.

    Shrimpton R, and associates. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in developing-country settings: policy and program implications of the results of a meta-analysis. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2009 Dec;30(4 Suppl):S556-73.

    Full Abstract:

    PURPOSE: In the United States, African American women deliver preterm and low birth weight infants two to three times more frequently than their white counterparts. Our objective was to determine whether maternal periconceptional multivitamin (MVI) use is associated with this disparity.
    METHODS: As a secondary analysis of previously collected data from mothers of non-malformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2331 non-Hispanic white and 133 non-Hispanic black mother/infant pairs from 1998 through 2007. To estimate the effect of MVI use on birth outcomes, linear regression models were used.
    RESULTS: In white subjects, MVI use was not associated with birth weight, gestational age, or weight-for-gestational-age. However, in black subjects, MVI use was associated with a 536-gram increased birth weight (p=0.001). Black MVI users also had longer gestations (although not statistically significant). When birth weights were adjusted for gestational age using z scores, MVI use was associated with increased fetal growth in black infants (+0.86 z score units, 95% confidence interval: 0.35-1.36).
    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest MVI use may improve fetal growth and possibly gestational age in the offspring of African American women.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Antioxidants improve the chance of a healthy pregnancy. SimplyOne Prenatal has over 600mg of antioxidants in a daily dose & PreNatal Blend 2 has over 1,700 mg of antioxidants in a daily dose.

    This study said that antioxidants helped prevent hypertensive disorders in pregnant women that can affect the health of the newborn.

    Lin JH, and associates. Effect of antioxidants on amelioration of high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Chinese Medical Journal (Engl). 2010 Sep;123(18):2548-2554.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: This is a prospective clinical study based on a large sample gathered from multiple centers in China, subordinating to 10th Five-Year Plan of National Science & Technology Progression. We analyzed the high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) and estimated the potential effect of anti-oxidants administration, including vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and Salvia Miltiorrhiza L (SML), a Chinese herb medicine, in amelioration of the high-risk factors in pregnancy.

    METHODS: From April 2005 to July 2006, 4814 pregnant women from 24 national wide cooperative hospitals were involved in this prospective research. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: 1607 cases were in anti-oxidants group with administration of vitamins and SML; 3207 cases were in control group without any medicine given. Every participant was under monitoring for the morbidity of HDP and the high-risk factors were investigated in HDP cases in each group.

    RESULTS: (1) The morbidity of HDP was 3.55% in anti-oxidants group vs. 4.18% in control group. No statistical difference existed between the two groups (P > 0.05). (2) In anti-oxidants group, the HDP morbidities among three subgroups: VC + VE + SML, VC + VE and SML only, were 5.51%, 3.05% and 5% respectively. It showed no statistical difference among three remedies (P > 0.05). (3) The related index of factors affecting HDP showed in intensity sequence as follows: family HDP history > profession > education level > age > body weight. The incidence of HDP in normal population was 3.51%, and the incidence of HDP in high-risk pregnant women (family HDP history, heavy physical labor, low education level (middle school and below), age ≥ 40, body mass index ≥ 24) was 5.84%, which was obviously higher than that in normal population (P < 0.01). In anti-oxidants group, the probability of HDP in women with high-risk factors was 3.81%, which was obviously lower than that in control group with high-risk factors at 7.14% (P < 0.01). (4) In control group, the morbidity of HDP in women with family HDP history (especially with sisters'), heavy physical labor, middle school and below, age ≥ 35 was: 50.00%, 15.22%, 6.33%, 26.28% and 5.75%, respectively, and that in anti-oxidants group was 0, 7.69%, 3.74%, 9.27% and 2.67%, respectively, which was obviously lower than that in control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high-risk factors prone to induce HDP included: family history of HDP, heavy physical labor, low education level, aging and obesity. No impressive effect of anti-oxidants application was found in preventing HDP in general population but the remedy demonstrated positive effect on preventing HDP in pregnant women with high-risk factors.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Beta carotene improves the chances of a healthy pregnancy.Beta carotene in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (12000 IU)

    Vitamin A is essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues. Notably during pregnancy and throughout the breastfeeding period, vitamin A has an important role in the healthy development of the fetus and the newborn, with lung development and maturation being particularly important.

    Stroben M, and associates. The importance of beta-carotene as a source of vitamin A with special regard to pregnant and breastfeeding women. European Journal of Nutrition 2007 Jul;46 Suppl 1:I1-20.

    Full Abstract:

    Vitamin A is essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues. Notably during pregnancy and throughout the breastfeeding period, vitamin A has an important role in the healthy development of the fetus and the newborn, with lung development and maturation being particularly important. The German Nutrition Society (DGE) recommends a 40% increase in vitamin A intake for pregnant women and a 90% increase for breastfeeding women. However, pregnant women or those considering becoming pregnant are generally advised to avoid the intake of vitamin A rich liver and liver foods, based upon unsupported scientific findings. As a result, the provitamin A carotenoid beta-carotene remains their essential source of vitamin A. Basic sources of provitamin A are orange and dark green vegetables, followed by fortified beverages which represent between 20% and 40% of the daily supply. The average intake of beta-carotene in Germany is about 1.5-2 mg a day. Assuming a vitamin A conversion rate for beta-carotene for juices of 4:1, and fruit and vegetables between 12:1 and 26:1; the total vitamin A contribution from beta-carotene intake represents 10-15% of the RDA. The American Pediatrics Association cites vitamin A as one of the most critical vitamins during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period, especially in terms of lung function and maturation. If the vitamin A supply of the mother is inadequate, her supply to the fetus will also be inadequate, as will later be her milk. These inadequacies cannot be compensated by postnatal supplementation. A clinical study in pregnant women with short birth intervals or multiple births showed that almost 1/3 of the women had plasma retinol levels below 1.4 micromol/l corresponding to a borderline deficiency. Despite the fact that vitamin A and beta-carotene rich food is generally available, risk groups for low vitamin A supply exist in the western world. It is therefore highly critical to restrict the beta-carotene supply from diet, particularly from sources of beta-carotene with high consumer acceptance such as fortified juices (e.g. "ACE juices") or dietary supplements (e.g. multivitamins for pregnant women). For the part of the population unable to meet vitamin A requirements according to the DACH recommendations, sufficient intake of beta-carotene may be crucial to help improve and maintain adequate vitamin A status and prevention of developmental disorders. At this time it has to be urgently advised against restricting the beta-carotene supply or putting warning labels on beta-carotene fortified products. It is, however, highly recommended to improve the available data on nutrient intakes in Germany, especially for pregnant and breastfeeding women. For them, recommendations to be aware of potential nutrient intake inadequacies might prove useful.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (1) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    Folic acid requirements are said to double during pregnancy. While 400 mcg of folic acid can reduce spina bifida birth defects by about 40 percent, this study also showed that 1000 mcg reduced birth defects by about 50 percent.

    Garcia-Morales MA, and associates. [Peri-conception use of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defect: current concepts] Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico 1996 Sep;64:418-21. [Article in Spanish]

    Full Abstract:

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is about 1.3 cases per 1000 live births. The higher incidence of NTDs occurs among certain ethnic groups, and geographic areas. The fetal morbimortality is high and the treatment for those babies who live is expensive with poor quality of live. It is unclear what biochemical mechanism involving folate explains the relationship of this vitamin to the pathogenesis of NTDs. However elevated concentrations of homocysteine or decreased methionine concentrations could be interfere with closure of the neural tube. The pharmacologic periconceptional intake of 0.4-4.0 mg/day of folic acid reduces the risk of occurrent NTDs by approximately 40-75%. A relatively high dietary intake of folate may also reduce the risk.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (2) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    This study also showed that folic acid could reduce the chances of neural tube birth defects.

    De-Regil LM, and associates. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database System Review. 2010 Oct 6;10:CD007950.

    Full Abstract:

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (3) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    This study said folic acid supplementation could reduce the risk of orofacial clefts in the baby.

    Wehby GL,;and associates. Folic acid and orofacial clefts: a review of the evidence.  Oral Diseases 2010 Jan;16(1):11-9.

    Full Abstract:

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: (4) Folic Acid improves chances of a healthy baby. Folic Acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1250 mcg)

    This study said that folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of cleft lip.

    This study said that folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of cleft lip.

    Full Abstract:

    [-------Abstract Coming Soon--------]
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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Multivitamins improve chances of a healthy baby. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    The use of vitamin supplements in the first 4 months of pregnancy showed a protective effect against the occurrence of cleft palate.

    Loffredo LC, Souza JM, Freitas JA, Mossey PA. UNESP-Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, Brazil. Oral clefts and vitamin supplementation. Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal 2001 Jan;38(1):76-83.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: The evidence linking low levels of folic acid and orofacial clefting (OFC) is presently equivocal. There is stronger evidence for the role of folic acid supplementation in protection against the occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects. The present investigation tested the hypotheses that cleft lip, cleft palate, or both are inversely associated with maternal intake of dietary and supplemental vitamins during the periconceptional period and first 4 months of pregnancy in a Brazilian population.

    DESIGN: A population-based, case-control study of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) and isolated cleft palate (CP) in a Brazilian population. In structured interviews, case histories were taken from the mothers of a consecutive sample of 450 infants born with nonsyndromic OFC.

    RESULTS: Mothers who had children with CL(P) were less likely to have been supplemented during the periconceptional period. The statistical significance of the difference in prevalence of the use of supplements between mothers of patients and of controls was greater for the CL(P) group: p < .05 for CP and p < .001 for CL(P). Multivariate analysis confirmed this finding of a protective effect for both types of orofacial cleft.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of vitamin supplements in the first 4 months of pregnancy was suggestive of a protective effect against the occurrence of CP and CL(P) in this population. The significance of an association between multivitamin supplementation and OFC and the possible role of gene/environment interaction are discussed.

    PMID: 11204686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Calcium improves the chances of a healthy baby.Calcium in SimplyOne Prenatal (200 mg) & PreNatal Blend (100 mg)

    This study said that if women took supplemental calcium their babies were born with more bone mineral content.

    Koo WW, and associates. Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstetrics and Gynecololgy. 1999 Oct;94(4):577-82.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of maternal calcium supplementation during pregnancy on fetal bone mineralization.

    METHODS: Healthy mothers with early ultrasound confirmation of dates and singleton pregnancies were enrolled in a double-masked study and randomized before 22 weeks' gestation to 2 g/day of elemental calcium or placebo until delivery. Maternal dietary intake at randomization and at 32-33 weeks' gestation was recorded with 24-hour dietary recalls. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of the whole body and lumbar spine of the neonates were performed before hospital discharge.

    RESULTS: The infants of 256 women (128 per group) had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements during the first week of life. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in gestational age, birth weight, or length of the infants, or in the total-body or lumbar spine bone mineral content. However, when bone mineral content was analyzed by treatment group within quintiles of maternal dietary calcium intake, total body bone mineral content (mean +/- standard error of the mean) was significantly greater in infants born to calcium-supplemented mothers (64.1+/-3.2 versus 55.7+/-2.7 g in the placebo group) in the lowest quintile of dietary calcium intake (less than 600 mg/day). The effect of calcium supplementation remained significant after adjustment for maternal age and maternal body mass index and after normalization for skeletal area and body length of the infant.

    CONCLUSION: Maternal calcium supplementation of up to 2 g/day during the second and third trimesters can increase fetal bone mineralization in women with low dietary calcium intake. However, calcium supplementation in pregnant women with adequate dietary calcium intake is unlikely to result in major improvement in fetal bone mineralization.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin D improves the chances of a healthy baby.Vitamin D in SimplyOne Prenatal (3000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (4000 IU)

    This study said that higher amounts of vitamin D than previously used should be considered for the healthiest outcome.

    Dror DK & Allen LH. Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: biology, outcomes, and interventions. Nutrition Reviews 2010 Aug;68(8):465-77.

    Full Abstract:

    A high prevalence of maternal vitamin D inadequacy during pregnancy and at delivery has been demonstrated in various ethnic populations living at different latitudes. Because placental transfer of 25(OH)D is the major source of vitamin D to the developing human fetus, there is growing concern about adverse health impacts that hypovitaminosis D during pregnancy may have on the mother as well as the offspring in utero, in infancy, and later in life. While there is lack of consensus regarding the optimal circulating 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy, it is evident that prior levels used to establish intake recommendations and vitamin D content of prenatal vitamin supplements were too conservative. This review summarizes vitamin D metabolism in the perinatal period, examines evidence regarding outcomes of insufficiency in the mother and offspring, discusses risk factors and prevalence of insufficiency, and considers strategies for public health intervention.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalHEALTHIER BABIES: Vitamin A improves the chances of a healthy baby.Vitamin A in SimplyOne Prenatal (5000 IU) & PreNatal Blend (5000 IU)

    This study said that higher vitamin A intake from food and supplements reduced the risk of orofacial clefts.

    Johansen AM, and associates. Maternal dietary intake of vitamin A and risk of orofacial clefts: a population-based case-control study in Norway. American Journal of Epidemiology 2008 May 15;167(10):1164-70.

    Full Abstract:

    A population-based case-control study was carried out in Norway between 1996 and 2001. The aim was to evaluate the association between maternal intake of vitamin A from diet and supplements and risk of having a baby with an orofacial cleft. Data on maternal dietary intake were available from 535 cases (188 with cleft palate only and 347 with cleft lip with or without cleft palate) and 693 controls. The adjusted odds ratio for isolated cleft palate only was 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.94) when comparing the fourth and first quartiles of maternal intake of total vitamin A. In contrast, there was no appreciable association of total vitamin A with isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate. An intake of vitamin A above the 95th percentile was associated with a lower estimated risk of all isolated clefts compared with the 40th–60th percentile (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 1.14). Maternal intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced risk of cleft palate only, and there is no evidence of increased risk of clefts among women in our study with the highest 5% of vitamin A intake.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Multivitamins improve chances of a full-term pregnancy. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    A study comparing women who did and did not take multi-vitamin supplements during the first and second trimester. The women who took multi-vitamins had lower premature delivery risk factors as follows: 1. Approximately 75% less risk for women who started taking multi-vitamins in the first trimester; 2. Approximately 50% less risk for women who started taking multi-vitamins in the second trimester.

    Scholl TO, and associates. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997 Jul 15;146(2):134-41.

    Full Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by low income, urban women in the Camden Study (1985-1995, n = 1,430) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks) and infant low birth weight (< 2,500 g). Prenatal supplement use was corroborated by assay of circulating micronutrients at entry to care (no differences) and week 28 gestation (increased concentrations of folate and ferritin for supplement users). Compared with women who entered care during the first or second trimester but did not use prenatal supplements, supplement use starting in the first or second trimester was associated with approximately a twofold reduction in risk of preterm delivery. After controlling for potential confounding variables, risk of very preterm delivery (< 33 weeks' gestation) was reduced more than fourfold for first trimester users and approximately twofold when use dated from the second trimester. Infant low birth weight and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) risks were also reduced. Risk of low birth weight was reduced approximately twofold with supplement use during the first and second trimester. Diminution in risk was greater for very low birth weight infants, amounting to a sevenfold reduction in risk of very low birth weight with first trimester supplementation and a greater than six-fold reduction when supplement use started in the second trimester. Thus, in low income, urban women, use of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements may have the potential to diminish infant morbidity and mortality.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Vitamin A improves the chances of a full-term pregnancy. Vitamin A in SimplyOne Prenatal (5000 IU) & PreNatal Blend 2 (5000 IU)

    A study of 736 pregnant women showed that Vitamin A (retinol, not beta carotene) deficiency was associated with a 74 percent increased chance of premature delivery. Total Vitamin A intake from supplements should be at least 2,500 IU but not more than 10,000 IU during pregnancy. (The World Health Organization says “It is safe to give fertile women, independent of their vitamin A status, as much as 10,000 IU daily at any time during pregnancy.”)

    Radhika MS, and associates. Effects of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on maternal and child health. British Journal of Gynecology 2002 Jun;109(6):689-93.
    (The World Health Organization says “It is safe to give fertile women, independent of their vitamin A status, as much as 10,000 IU daily at any time during pregnancy.”)

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between biochemical vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy and maternal and fetal health.

    DESIGN: A cross sectional clinical study.

    SETTING: Antenatal clinic of nutrition unit of Niloufer Hospital catering for a low socio-economic population, and a private nursing home (Swapna nursing home) catering for a high socio-economic population.

    POPULATION: 736 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy belonging to low (n = 522) and high socio-economic groups (n = 214).

    METHODS: All the women were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometric and obstetric examination. Night blindness was assessed by administering the standard WHO questionnaire. Birthweight and gestational age of the infants, maternal anaemia and development of pregnancy-induced hypertension in the mother were recorded. Haemoglobin and serum retinol were estimated at the time of recruitment to the study.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum retinol levels, anaemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, birth weight and gestational age of the infant.

    RESULTS: Night blindness was observed in 2.9% of the women and subclincal vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol <20 microg/dL with no clinical signs) in 27% of the women. Moderate to severe anaemia was observed in 41.2% of the women, and 15.8% of the women developed pregnancy-induced hypertension. Sixty-one (9.4%) women delivered preterm. Univariate analysis identified a significant association between serum retinol <20 microg/dL and preterm delivery (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.96), maternal anaemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.28-2.60) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.02-2.83). After adjusting for the confounding variables (body mass index, parity, age and socio-economic status) in a multivariate analysis, the significant associations between serum retinol <20 microg/dL and preterm delivery (P = 0.02) and anaemia (P = 0.003) persisted, while that for pregnancy-induced hypertension disappeared (P = 0.71).

    CONCLUSION: The study suggests that subclinical vitamin A deficiency is a problem during the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum concentration of retinol <20 microg/dL appears to indicate a deficient status, and is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and maternal anaemia.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFULL-TERM PREGNANCY: Vitamin C improves chances of a full-term pregnancy. Vitamin C in PreNatal Blend 2 (1200 mg)

    This study showed that pregnant women who had the most vitamin C intake (≥362 mg/day) from food and supplements had twice as much chance of a full-term pregnancy as women who consumed the least amount of vitamin C (<169 mg/day).

    Siega-Riz AM, and associates. Vitamin C intake and the risk of pre-term delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology August 2003;189(2):519-525.

    Full Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Ascorbic acid deficiency may lead to premature rupture of the membranes.

    STUDY DESIGN: The study included a prospective cohort of pregnant women, aged >16 years, with singleton gestations who received care at one of four prenatal clinics in central North Carolina from 1995 through 1998. Vitamin C intake pre-conceptionally and during the second trimester was examined for its association with preterm delivery and subsets of preterm labor, premature rupture of the membranes, and medical induction in 2064 women.

    RESULTS: Women who had total vitamin C intakes of <10th percentile pre-conceptionally had twice the risk of preterm delivery because of premature rupture of the membranes (relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1, 4.5). This risk was attenuated slightly for second-trimester intake (relative risk, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8, 3.5). The elevated risk of preterm premature rupture of the membranes was greatest for women with a low vitamin C intake during both time periods.

    CONCLUSION: Because diet and supplement use are modifiable behaviors, corroboration of these findings would suggest a possible intervention strategy.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Vitamin D at 1,000 IU improves the chances of full birth weight. Vitamin D in PreNatal Blend (4000 mg)

    This study showed that supplementation with 1,000 IU of Vitamin D3 per day resulted in almost twice as many babies with higher birth weights.

    Maxwell JD, and associates. Vitamin D supplements enhance weight gain and nutritional status in pregnant Asians. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1981 Oct;88(10):987-91.

    Full Abstract:

    In a double blind trial of supplementary vitamin D (1000 iu daily) administered in the last trimester of pregnancy to Asian women living in London, supplemented mothers gained weight faster (63.3 g/day) than those in the control group (46.4 g/day), and at term had significantly higher plasma levels of retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin indicating better protein-calorie nutrition. Maternal weight gain correlated with postpartum levels of both retinol binding protein and thyroid binding prealbumin. Almost twice as many infants in the unsupplemented group weighed under 2500 g at birth, and had significantly lower retinol binding protein levels than infants of supplemented mothers. The nutritional benefits of supplementation provide further support for the routine administration of vitamin D to all British Asians during pregnancy.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Multivitamins taken in the first and second trimesters significantly improved the chances of full birth weight. Multivitamins in SimplyOne Prenatal & PreNatal Blend

    The study showed that women who took multi-vitamin supplements during the first and second trimester showed that there was 86% better chance of full birth weight when multivitamins were taken in the first trimester and 84% better chance of full birth weight when multi-vitamin use started in the second trimester.

    Scholl TO, and associates. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 Jul 15;146(2):134-41.

    Full Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by low income, urban women in the Camden Study (1985-1995, n = 1,430) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks) and infant low birth weight (< 2,500 g). Prenatal supplement use was corroborated by assay of circulating micronutrients at entry to care (no differences) and week 28 gestation (increased concentrations of folate and ferritin for supplement users). Compared with women who entered care during the first or second trimester but did not use prenatal supplements, supplement use starting in the first or second trimester was associated with approximately a twofold reduction in risk of preterm delivery. After controlling for potential confounding variables, risk of very preterm delivery (< 33 weeks' gestation) was reduced more than fourfold for first trimester users and approximately twofold when use dated from the second trimester. Infant low birth weight and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) risks were also reduced. Risk of low birth weight was reduced approximately twofold with supplement use during the first and second trimester. Diminution in risk was greater for very low birth weight infants, amounting to a sevenfold reduction in risk of very low birth weight with first trimester supplementation and a greater than sixfold reduction when supplement use started in the second trimester. Thus, in low income, urban women, use of prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements may have the potential to diminish infant morbidity and mortality.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Folic acid at 1,000 mcg improves the chances of full birth weight.Folic acid in SimplyOne Prenatal (1000 mcg) & PreNatal Blend (1000 mcg)

    This study showed that supplementation with 400 mcg of folic acid or more per day resulted in lower homocysteine and higher birth weight as folic acid dosages increased.

    Fryer AA, and associates. Quantitative, high-resolution epigenetic profiling of CpG loci identifies associations with cord blood plasma homocysteine and birth weight in humans. Epigenetics 6:1, 86-94; January 2011.

    Full Abstract:

    Supplementation with folic acid during pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects and low birth weight. It is thought that folate and other one-carbon intermediates might secure these clinical effects via DNA methylation. We examined the effects of folate on the human methylome using quantitative interrogation of 27,578 CpG loci associated with 14,496 genes at single-nucleotide resolution across 12 fetal cord blood samples. Consistent with previous studies, the majority of CpG dinucleotides located within CpG islands exhibited hypo-methylation while those outside CpG islands showed mid-high methylation. However, for the first time in human samples, unbiased analysis of methylation across samples revealed a significant correlation of methylation patterns with plasma homocysteine, LINE-1 methylation and birth weight centile. Additionally, CpG methylation significantly correlated with either birth weight or LINE-1 methylation were predominantly located in CpG islands. These data indicate that levels of folate-associated intermediates in cord blood reflect their influence and consequences for the fetal epigenome and potentially on pregnancy outcome. In these cases, their influence might be exerted during late gestation or reflect those present during the peri-conceptual period.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Iron at 30 mg or more improves the chances of full birth weight. Iron in SimplyOne Prenatal (30 mg) & PreNatal Blend (40 mg)

    In this randomized placebo-controlled study of 513 prenatal women, 30 mg of iron per day resulted in significantly higher average birth weight and 77.7% fewer low-birth-weight babies delivered prematurely.

    Cogswell ME, and associates. Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial1,2,3 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 4, 773-781, October 2003.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: The need for prophylactic iron during pregnancy is uncertain.

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that administration of a daily iron supplement from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation to initially iron-replete, nonanemic pregnant women would reduce the prevalence of anemia at 28 wk and increase birth weight.

    DESIGN: Between June 1995 and September 1998, 513 low-income pregnant women in Cleveland were enrolled in the study before 20 wk of gestation. Of these, 275 had a hemoglobin concentration ≥ 110 g/L and a ferritin concentration ≥ 20 µg/L and were randomly assigned to receive a monthly supply of capsules containing either 30 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate or placebo until 28 wk of gestation. At 28 and 38 wk of gestation, women with a ferritin concentration of 12 to < 20 µg/L or < 12 µg/L received 30 and 60 mg Fe/d, respectively, regardless of initial assignment. Almost all the women received some supplemental iron during pregnancy. We obtained infant birth weight and gestational age at delivery for 117 and 96 of the 146 and 129 women randomly assigned to receive iron and placebo, respectively.

    RESULTS: Compared with placebo, iron supplementation from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation did not significantly affect the overall prevalence of anemia or the incidence of preterm births but led to a significantly higher mean (± SD) birth weight (206 ± 565 g; P = 0.010), a significantly lower incidence of low-birth-weight infants (4% compared with 17%; P = 0.003), and a significantly lower incidence of preterm low-birth-weight infants (3% compared with 10%; P = 0.017).

    Conclusion: Prenatal prophylactic iron supplementation deserves further examination as a measure to improve birth weight and potentially reduce health care costs.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalBETTER BIRTH WEIGHT: Zinc at 25 mg or more improves the chances of full birth weight. Zinc in SimplyOne Prenatal (32 mg) & PreNatal Blend (30 mg)

    This randomized placebo-controlled study of 580 pregnant women showed that women who took 25 mg of zinc per day had babies that weighed 4.5 ounces more than women who took no zinc.

    Goldenberg, RL, and associates. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995;274(6):463-468.

    Full Abstract:

    Objective: To evaluate whether zinc supplementation during pregnancy is associated with an increase in birth weight.

    Design: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Setting: Outpatient clinic and delivery service at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

    Patients: Five hundred eighty medically indigent but otherwise healthy African-American pregnant women with plasma zinc levels below the median at enrollment in prenatal care, randomized at 19 weeks' gestational age. Women were subdivided by the population median body mass index of 26 kg/m2 into two groups for additional analyses.

    Intervention: Women who were taking a non—zinc-containing prenatal multivitamin/mineral tablet were randomized to receive either a daily dose of 25 mg of zinc or a placebo until delivery.

    Main Outcome Measures: Birth weight, gestational age at birth, and head circumference at birth.

    Results: In all women, infants in the zinc supplement group had a significantly greater birth weight (126 g, P=.03) and head circumference (0.4 cm, P=.02) than infants in the placebo group. In women with a body mass index less than 26 kg/m2, zinc supplementation was associated with a 248-g higher infant birth weight (P=.005) and a 0.7-cm larger infant head circumference (P=.007). Plasma zinc concentrations were significantly higher in the zinc supplement group.

    Conclusions: Daily zinc supplementation in women with relatively low plasma zinc concentrations in early pregnancy is associated with greater infant birth weights and head circumferences, with the effect occurring predominantly in women with a body mass index less than 26 kg/m2.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalANTI-AGING: Vitamin D Supplementation Can Reduce Aches and Pains. Vitamin D in SimplyOne 50+ (5,000 IU), SimplyOne Women (3,000 IU), PreNatal Blend (4,000 IU).

    Addressing vitamin D deficiency can reduce aches and pains.

    Multiple Citations - please read the abstracts.

    SuperNutrition was the first company to put 1,000 IU of vitamin D in a multivitamin in 1999; the first to put 1,000 IU in a one-daily multivitamin in our SimplyOne 50+ formulas; the first to put 2,000 IU in a one daily formula in SimplyOne Women; the first to put 4,000 IU in a prenatal multivitamin in PreNatal Blend. For people with chronic aches and pains we suggest working with your doctor and doing OH-vitamin D blood tests to find the optimal vitamin D daily dosage for you, as each individual is different. While SuperNutrition formulas contain higher potencies of vitamin D, some people may need more vitamin D than is in our formulas.


    Full Abstract:
    Al Faraj S, Al Mutairi K. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia. Spine (Phil aPa 1976). 2003 Jan 15;28(2):177-9.

    STUDY DESIGN: Initial assessment involved 360 patients (90% women and 10% men) attending spinal and internal medicine clinics over a 6-year period who had experienced low back pain that had no obvious cause for more than 6 months. The patients ranged in age from 15 to 52 years.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of vitamin D deficiency as a cause for idiopathic chronic low back pain, to find a simple and sensitive test for screening patients with low back pain for vitamin D deficiency, and to determine the correlation between the vitamin deficiency and pain.

    METHODS: A biochemical assay of serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D level was performed before and after treatment with vitamin D supplements.

    RESULTS: Findings showed that 83% of the study patients (n = 299) had an abnormally low level of vitamin D before treatment with vitamin D supplements. After treatment, clinical improvement in symptoms was seen in all the groups that had a low level of vitamin D, and in 95% of all the patients (n = 341).

    CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is a major contributor to chronic low back pain in areas where vitamin D deficiency is endemic. Screening for vitamin D deficiency and treatment with supplements should be mandatory in this setting. Measurement of serum 25-OH cholecalciferol is sensitive and specific for detection of vitamin D deficiency, and hence for presumed osteomalacia in patients with chronic low back pain.



    Full Abstract:
    De Torrente de la Jara G, and associates. Female asylum seekers with musculoskeletal pain: the importance of diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis D. Biomedcentral Family Practice 2006 Jan 23;7:4.

    BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D is well known in different populations, but may be under diagnosed in certain populations. We aim to determine the first diagnosis considered, the duration and resolution of symptoms, and the predictors of response to treatment in female asylum seekers suffering from hypovitaminosis D.

    METHODS: Design: A pre- and post-intervention observational study. Setting: A network comprising an academic primary care centre and nurse practitioners. Participants: Consecutive records of 33 female asylum seekers with complaints compatible with osteomalacia and with hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-(OH) vitamin D < 21 nmol/l). Treatment intervention: The patients received either two doses of 300,000 IU intramuscular cholecalciferol as well as 800 IU of cholecalciferol with 1000 mg of calcium orally, or the oral treatment only. Main outcome measures: We recorded the first diagnosis made by the physicians before the correct diagnosis of hypovitaminosis D, the duration of symptoms before diagnosis, the responders and non-responders to treatment, the duration of symptoms after treatment, and the number of medical visits and analgesic drugs prescribed 6 months before and 6 months after diagnosis. Tests: Two-sample t-tests, chi-squared tests, and logistic regression analyses were performed. Analyses were performed using SPSS 10.0.

    RESULTS: Prior to the discovery of hypovitaminosis D, diagnoses related to somatisation were evoked in 30 patients (90.9%). The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 2.53 years (SD 3.20). Twenty-two patients (66.7%) responded completely to treatment; the remaining patients were considered to be non-responders. After treatment was initiated, the responders' symptoms disappeared completely after 2.84 months. The mean number of emergency medical visits fell from 0.88 (SD 1.08) six months before diagnosis to 0.39 (SD 0.83) after (P = 0.027). The mean number of analgesic drugs that were prescribed also decreased from 1.67 (SD 1.5) to 0.85 (SD 1) (P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Hypovitaminosis D in female asylum seekers may remain undiagnosed, with a prolonged duration of chronic symptoms. The potential pitfall is a diagnosis of somatisation. Treatment leads to a rapid resolution of symptoms, a reduction in the use of medical services, and the prescription of analgesic drugs in this vulnerable population.



    Full Abstract:
    Prabhala A, and associates. Severe myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency in western New York. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000 Apr 24;160(8):1199-203.

    Five cases of severe myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency are described. Each patient was confined to a wheelchair because of weakness and immobility. Two were elderly, 1 was a 37-year-old African American with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 1 was being treated for carcinoid syndrome, and 1 was severely malnourished due to poor oral intake. In each, weakness had previously been attributed to other causes, including old age, concomitant diabetic neuropathy, or general debility. Correct diagnosis was made initially by a high index of suspicion, following the demonstration of clinical proximal myopathy; confirmation was made by the demonstration of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations. Treatment with vitamin D caused a resolution of body aches and pains and a restoration of normal muscle strength in 4 to 6 weeks. Four patients became fully mobile and had normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and the fifth also became mobile. In the 4 fully recovered cases, parathyroid hormone levels on follow-up were lower but still elevated. This finding suggests a degree of autonomy of parathyroid secretion known to occur in cases of long-standing vitamin D deficiency. Myopathy, due to chronic vitamin D deficiency, probably contributes to immobility and ill health in a significant number of patients in the northern United States. An awareness of this condition may significantly improve mobility and quality of life in patient populations vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency.



    Full Abstract:
    Gloth FM 3rd, and associates. Can vitamin D deficiency produce an unusual pain syndrome? Archives of Internal Medicine. 1991 Aug;151(8):1662-4

    An unusual pain occurred in five patients in the presence of compromised vitamin D status and resolved 5 to 7 days after supplementation with vitamin D in the form of ergocalciferol. The pain had a hyperesthetic quality and did not respond to the use of analgesics, including opiate derivatives. Treatment with therapeutic levels of a tricyclic antidepressant did not bring relief of symptoms. In one case, months after treatment and subsequent improvement of vitamin D status and pain, the vitamin D status again declined and the pain recurred. The pain again resolved with vitamin D replacement and improvement of levels. There may be a pain syndrome associated with vitamin D depletion that appears as hyperesthesia worsened by light, superficial pressure or even small increments of movement. This pain restricts mobility and function and may lead to further complications, such as pressure sores.



    We also suggest you read: Vitamin D – A Neglected 'Analgesic' for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.


    New!Read the Abstracts
  • SimplyOne 50+ womenANTI-AGING: Folic Acid Levels Improved Bone Mineral Density For Postmenopausal Women.All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    Two studies showed that higher levels of folic acid were associated with improved bone mineral density for postmenopausal women, the group of people who are most likely to lose bone. Folic acid most likely works well for people who have less problems with bone loss, such as younger women and men.

    Mulitiple citations - please read abstracts

    Full Abstract:

    Cagnacci A, and associates. Relation of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 to bone mineral density of postmenopausal women. Bone. 20-03 Dec;33(6):956-9.

    Genetic hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with skeletal abnormalities and osteoporosis. We tested whether levels of homocysteine and critical co-enzymes of homocysteine metabolism, such as vitamin B12 and folate, are related to lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA in 161 postmenopausal women. Folate but not homocysteine or vitamin B12, was lower in osteoporotic than normal women (7.2 +/- 0.9 ng/L vs 11.4 +/- 0.7 ng/L, P < 0.003). Folate, but not homocysteine or vitamin B12, was independently related to BMD (r = 0.254, P < 0.011). BMD progressively increased from the lowest to the highest folate quartile (1.025 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 vs 1.15 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, P < 0.01) even when covaried for weight, which was the only other variable related to BMD. The present data suggest a major association between folate and bone mineralization.



    Full Abstract:

    Cagnacci A, and associates. Relation of folates, vitamin B12 and homocysteine to vertebral bone mineral density change in postmenopausal women. A five-year longitudinal evaluation. Bone 2008 Feb;42(2):314-20. Epub 2007 Nov 12.

    Elevation of homocysteine is associated with an increased risk for bone fractures. Whether the risk is due to homocysteine or to the reduced levels of cofactors necessary for its metabolisation, such as folates or vitamin B12, is not completely clear. In this study we wanted to determine whether in postmenopausal women, levels of folates, homocysteine or vitamin B12 are predictive of the rate of vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) change. The study was conducted at the centre for the menopause of our university hospital. Between September 2001 and March 2002, 161 healthy postmenopausal women volunteered for a cross-sectional evaluation of BMD and levels of serum folates, homocysteine and vitamin B12. Women were recalled for a second evaluation of vertebral BMD after about 5 years. Women having used anti-resorptive therapies for more than 1 year were excluded. The analysis was possible in 117 postmenopausal women. The annual rate of vertebral BMD change was independently related to levels of folates (coefficient of regression (CR): 2.040; 95%CI: 0.483, 3.596; p=0.011), and initial BMD values (CR: -0.060; 95%CI: -0.117, -0.003; p=0.040). No significant relation was found between the change of vertebral BMD and homocysteine or vitamin B12. BMD values at the first (r=0.225; p=0.016) and the second (r=0.206; p=0.027) evaluation were related to levels of folates, but not of homocysteine or of vitamin B12. These data suggest an important role for folates deficiency in the vertebral BMD decline of postmenopausal women.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ womenANTI-AGING: Folic Acid Levels Improved Bone Mineral Density for Postmenopausal Women. All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    This study showed that folic acid intake was associated with better bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, the group of people who are most likely to lose bone. Folic acid most likely works well for people who have less problems with bone loss, such as younger women and men.

    Rejnmark L, and associates. Dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, is associated with increased bone mineral density 5 years after the menopause: results from a 10-year follow-up study in early postmenopausal women. Calcified Tissue International. 2008 Jan;82(1):1-11. Epub 2008 Jan 4.

    Full Abstract:

    Comment: This 10-year follow-up study of 1,869 postmenopausal women looked at vitamin B12, vitamin B2 and folic acid and found that only folic acid intake was associated with better bone mineral density.

    Folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), and vitamin B12 may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data on whether dietary intakes affect bone. Our aim was to investigate whether intake of folate, vitamin B2) and vitamin B12, as assessed by food records affects BMD and fracture risk. In a population-based cohort including 1,869 perimenopausal women from the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study, associations between intakes and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Moreover, associations between intakes and 5- and 10-year changes in BMD as well as risk of fracture were studied. Intakes of folate, vitamin B2, and vitamin B12 were 417 (range 290-494) microg/day, 2.70 (range 1.70-3.16) mg/day, and 4.98 (range 3.83-6.62) microg/day, respectively, i.e., slightly above the intakes recommended by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. At year 5, but not at baseline, cross-sectional analyses showed positive correlations between daily intake from diet and from diet plus supplements of folate and BMD at the femoral neck (P < 0.01). However, no associations were found between intakes and changes in BMD. During 10 years of follow-up, 360 subjects sustained a fracture. Compared with 1,440 controls, logistic regression analyses revealed no difference in intakes between cases and controls. A high dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, exerts positive effects on BMD; but further studies are needed to confirm this association.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ MenANTI-AGING: Folic Acid improves memory. All SuperNutrition multivitamins for adults provide 1,000 mcg of folic acid, the highest potency found in a multivitamin.

    This three-year double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 818 men and women, aged 50 to 70 years showed that, compared to placebo, those who took an 800 mcg folic acid supplement experienced about 13 percent better memory scores, about 8 percent better information processing speed and  about 6 percent better sensorimotor speed.

    Durga, J and Associates. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 20;369(9557):208-16.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Low folate and raised homocysteine concentrations in blood are associated with poor cognitive performance in the general population. As part of the FACIT trial to assess the effect of folic acid on markers of atherosclerosis in men and women aged 50-70 years with raised plasma total homocysteine and normal serum vitamin B12 at screening, we report here the findings for the secondary endpoint: the effect of folic acid supplementation on cognitive performance.

    METHODS: Our randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study took place between November, 1999, and December, 2004, in the Netherlands. We randomly assigned 818 participants 800 mug daily oral folic acid or placebo for 3 years. The effect on cognitive performance was measured as the difference between the two groups in the 3-year change in performance for memory, sensorimotor speed, complex speed, information processing speed, and word fluency. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov with trial number NCT00110604.

    FINDINGS: Serum folate concentrations increased by 576% (95% CI 539 to 614) and plasma total homocysteine concentrations decreased by 26% (24 to 28) in participants taking folic acid compared with those taking placebo. The 3-year change in memory (difference in Z scores 0.132, 95% CI 0.032 to 0.233), information processing speed (0.087, 0.016 to 0.158) and sensorimotor speed (0.064, -0.001 to 0.129) were significantly better in the folic acid group than in the placebo group.

    INTERPRETATION: Folic acid supplementation for 3 years significantly improved domains of cognitive function that tend to decline with age.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ MenANTI-AGING: Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Improve Memory. SuperNutrition's Simply One Men, Simply One Men 50+, Simply One Women 50+, Simply One Prenatal, Prenatal Blend, Men's Blend, Women's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Menopause Multiple, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy Pack contain these antioxidant vitamins and minerals in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Antioxidant vitamins and minerals significantly improved memory for people aged 45 to 60 years old.

    Read Abstract for full citation.

    Full Abstract:

    "French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial," Kesse-Guyot E, and associates, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011 July 20; [Epub ahead of print].

    BACKGROUND: Antioxidant properties of some vitamins and trace elements may help to prevent cognitive decline.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to estimate the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on the cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study 6 y after the end of the trial.

    DESIGN: This study included 4447 French participants aged 45-60 y who were enrolled in the SU.VI.MAX study (1994-2002), which was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. From 1994 to 2002, participants received daily vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 μg), and zinc (20 mg) in combination or as a placebo. In 2007-2009, the cognitive performance of participants was assessed with 4 neuropsychological tests (6 tasks). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to identify cognitive-function summary scores. Associations between antioxidant supplementation and cognitive functions, in the full sample and by subgroups, were estimated through ANOVA and expressed as mean differences and 95% CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics.

    RESULTS: Subjects receiving active antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.20). PCA indicated 2 factors that were interpreted as showing verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory was improved by antioxidant supplementation only in subjects who were nonsmokers or who had low serum vitamin C concentrations at baseline.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ WomenANTI-AGING: Multivitamins Improve Heart Health For Women. All SuperNutrition Simply One multivitamins provide these nutrients, but in higher more optimal potencies.

    Women who took a low dose one-daily multivitamin had significantly less chances of having a heart attack.

    Rautianen S, and associates. Multivitamin use and the risk of myocardial infarction: a population-based cohort of Swedish women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010: doi 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29371

    Full Abstract:

    Comment: This 10-year study of 31,671 women with no history of cardiovascular disease and 2,262 women with cardiovascular disease showed that taking a low potency one-daily multivitamin reduced the chances of a heart attack by an average of 27 percent. Those women who took the vitamins for more than five years were 41 percent less likely to experience a heart attack.

    Background: Dietary supplements are widely used in industrialized countries.

    Objective: The objective was to examine the association between multivitamin use and myocardial infarction (MI) in a prospective, population-based cohort of women.

    Design: The study included 31,671 women with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 2262 women with a history of CVD aged 49–83 y from Sweden. Women completed a self-administered questionnaire in 1997 regarding dietary supplement use, diet, and lifestyle factors. Multivitamins were estimated to contain nutrients close to recommended daily allowances: vitamin A (0.9 mg), vitamin C (60 mg), vitamin D (5 lg), vitamin E (9 mg), thiamine (1.2 mg), riboflavin (1.4 mg), vitamin B-6 (1.8 mg), vitamin B-12 (3 lg), and folic acid (400 lg).

    Results: During an average of 10.2 y of follow-up, 932 MI cases were identified in the CVD-free group and 269 cases in the CVD group. In the CVD-free group, use of multivitamins only, compared with no use of supplements, was associated with a multivariableadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.93). The HR for multivitamin use together with other supplements was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.87). The HR for use of supplements other than multivitamins was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.08). The use of multivitamins for 5 y was associated with an HR of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.80). In the CVD group, use of multivitamins alone or together with other supplements was not associated with MI.

    Conclusions: The use of multivitamins was inversely associated with MI, especially long-term use among women with no CVD. Further prospective studies with detailed information on the content of preparations and the duration of use are needed to confirm or refute our findings. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:1251–6

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  • SimplyOne MenFOR MEN: Nutrients in SuperNutrition Formulas For Men That Improve Memory.

    This multi-vitamin/mineral supplement improved memory for men 30 – 55 years old.

    Kennedy David O, and associates. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (2010) 211(1):55-68 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men, except vitamin C, are superior and more optimal. SuperNutrition Men's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in these SuperNutrition formulas are superior and more optimal.


    Full Abstract:

    Rationale
    A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults.

    Objectives
    The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment.

    Methods
    Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed.

    Results
    Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery.

    Conclusions
    Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.

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  • SimplyOne 50+ MenFOR MEN: Nutrients that support better memory for older men.

    This 2-year study of men 70 years and older showed that taking 800 mcg of folic acid, 500 mcg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6 improved three different measures of memory.

    de Jager CA, and associates. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2011 Jul 21. doi: 10.1002/gps.2758. [Epub ahead of print]

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men 50+ contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 225 mcg of vitamin B12, and 40 mg of vitamin B6. SuperNutrition Opti-Energy Pack contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12, and 250 mg of vitamin B6. SuperNutrition Super Immune Multivitamin contains 1,000 mcg of folic acid, 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12, and 200 mg of vitamin B6.

    Full Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In the first report on the VITACOG trial, we showed that homocysteine-lowering treatment with B vitamins slows the rate of brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we report the effect of B vitamins on cognitive and clinical decline (secondary outcomes) in the same study.

    METHODS: This was a double-blind, single-centre study, which included participants with MCI, aged ≥70 y, randomly assigned to receive a daily dose of 0.8 mg folic acid, 0.5 mg vitamin B(12) and 20 mg vitamin B(6) (133 participants) or placebo (133 participants) for 2 y. Changes in cognitive or clinical function were analysed by generalized linear models or mixed-effects models.

    RESULTS: The mean plasma total homocysteine was 30% lower in those treated with B vitamins relative to placebo. B vitamins stabilized executive function (CLOX) relative to placebo (P = 0.015). There was significant benefit of B-vitamin treatment among participants with baseline homocysteine above the median (11.3 µmol/L) in global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination, P < 0.001), episodic memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall, P = 0.001) and semantic memory (category fluency, P = 0.037). Clinical benefit occurred in the B-vitamin group for those in the upper quartile of homocysteine at baseline in global clinical dementia rating score (P = 0.02) and IQCODE score (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: In this small intervention trial, B vitamins appear to slow cognitive and clinical decline in people with MCI, in particular in those with elevated homocysteine. Further trials are needed to see if this treatment will slow or prevent conversion from MCI to dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • SimplyOne MenFOR MEN: Nutrients That Support More Physical Strength in SuperNutrition Formulas For Men.

    This multi-vitamin/mineral supplement improved cognitive performance under stress, including improved memory, with improved feelings of vigor, physical strength, energy and well-being with reduced feelings of mental and physical fatigue for healthy males, ages 30 - 55.

    Kennedy David O, and associates. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (2010) 211(1):55-68 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men provides all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men, except vitamin C, are superior and more optimal. SuperNutrition Men's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in these SuperNutrition formulas are superior and more optimal.

    Full Abstract:

    Rationale: A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults.

    Objectives: The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment.

    Methods: Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed.

    Results: Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery.

    Conclusions: Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne MenFOR MEN: Reduced Fatigue - Men. Nutrients That Support Reduced Fatigue in SuperNutrition Formulas For Men

    This multi-vitamin/mineral supplement improved cognitive performance under stress, including improved memory, with improved feelings of vigor, physical strength, energy and well-being with reduced feelings of mental and physical fatigue for healthy males, ages 30 - 55.

    Kennedy David O, and associates. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (2010) 211(1):55-68 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.

    SuperNutrition Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men provides all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in Simply One Men and Simply One 50+ Men, except vitamin C, are superior and more optimal. SuperNutrition Men's Blend, Perfect Family, Super Immune Multivitamin, Opti-Energy Pack and Easy-Swallow Opti-Energy provide all the nutrients contained in the multi-vitamin/mineral in this study, but all the nutrient potencies in these SuperNutrition formulas are superior and more optimal.

    Full Abstract:

    Rationale: A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults.

    Objectives: The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment.

    Methods: Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed.

    Results: Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery.

    Conclusions: Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.

    New!Read the Abstract
  • SimplyOne PrenatalFOR KIDS: Multivitamins improve memory, reaction time and other barometers of healthy brain function in healthy children. Perfect Kids Multivitamin

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation of eighty-one children, aged 8 to 14 concluded that a low potency multi-vitamin/mineral formula improved memory, reaction time and other barometers of brain function. SuperNutrition Perfect Kids provides all the vitamins and minerals in the multivitamin in the study, but in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Haskell CF, and associates. Cognitive and mood effects in healthy children during 12 weeks' supplementation with multi-vitamin/minerals. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008 Nov;100(5):1086-96. Epub 2008 May 29.

    SuperNutrition Perfect Kids provides all the vitamins and minerals in the multivitamin in the study, but in higher, more optimal potencies.

    Full Abstract:

    Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are essential for optimal neural functioning. A high proportion of individuals, including children, suffer from deficiencies in one or more vitamins or minerals. This study investigated whether daily supplementation with vitamins/minerals could modulate cognitive performance and mood in healthy children. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation, eighty-one healthy children aged from 8 to 14 years underwent laboratory assessments of their cognitive performance and mood pre-dose and at 1 and 3 h post-dose on the first and last days of 12 weeks' supplementation with a commercially available vitamins/mineral product (Pharmaton Kiddi). Interim assessments were also completed at home after 4 and 8 weeks at 3 h post-dose. Each assessment comprised completion of a cognitive battery, delivered over the Internet, which included tasks assessing mood and the speed and accuracy of attention and aspects of memory (secondary, semantic and spatial working memory). The vitamin/mineral group performed more accurately on two attention tasks: 'Arrows' choice reaction time task at 4 and 8 weeks; 'Arrow Flankers' choice reaction time task at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A single task outcome (Picture Recognition errors) evinced significant decrements at 12 weeks. Mood was not modulated in any interpretable manner. Whilst it is possible that the significant improvements following treatment were due to non-significant numerical differences in performance at baseline, these results would seem to suggest that vitamin/mineral supplementation has the potential to improve brain function in healthy children. This proposition requires further investigation.

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  • SimplyOne PrenatalFOR KIDS: Zinc at 20mg improved the speed of visual memory, word recognition and sustained attention. Perfect Kids Multivitamin

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 209 7th-graders looked at hand-to-eye coordination, attention, memory and problem-solving and showed that compared to kids given no zinc or 10 mg of zinc...

    "Zinc supplementation improved mental performance of 7th-grade boys and girls," News Release, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, April 4, 2005.

    Perfect Kids Dosing and Age

    • For 4 - 6 year olds 1 tablet with 5 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 7 - 8 year olds 2 tablets with 10 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 9 - 11 year olds 3 tablets with 15 mg of zinc makes them smarter
    • For 12 - 13 year old 4 tablets with 20 mg of zinc makes them smarter

    Full Abstract

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 209 7th-graders looked at hand-to-eye coordination, attention, memory and problem-solving and showed that compared to kids given no zinc or 10 mg of zinc:

    13-year old kids given 20 mg of zinc were:

    • Twice as fast when their visual memory was tested;
    • Three times better in word recognition tests;
    • Six times better in their sustained attention tasks.
    New!Read the Abstract
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*These statements have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.